Form 10-K
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT

PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended

December 31, 2015

Commission file number: 1-11302

 

LOGO

Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter:

Ohio

 

34-6542451

State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization:   IRS Employer Identification Number:

127 Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio

 

44114-1306

Address of Principal Executive Offices:   Zip Code:
  

(216) 689-3000

  
   Registrant’s Telephone Number, including area code:   

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

 

Title of each class

  

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Shares, $1 par value

   New York Stock Exchange

7.750% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock, Series A

   New York Stock Exchange

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ü No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No ü

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ü No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ü No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ü   Accelerated filer   Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company
  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ü

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was $12,670,985,551 (based on the June 30, 2015, closing price of KeyCorp common shares of $15.02 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange). As of February 22, 2016, there were 835,606,185 common shares outstanding.

Certain specifically designated portions of KeyCorp’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


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Forward-looking Statements

From time to time, we have made or will make forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Forward-looking statements usually can be identified by the use of words such as “goal,” “objective,” “plan,” “expect,” “assume,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “project,” “believe,” “estimate,” or other words of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events, circumstances, results or aspirations. Our disclosures in this report contain forward-looking statements. We may also make forward-looking statements in other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC. In addition, we may make forward-looking statements orally to analysts, investors, representatives of the media and others.

Forward-looking statements, by their nature, are subject to assumptions, risks, and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. Our actual results may differ materially from those set forth in our forward-looking statements. There is no assurance that any list of risks and uncertainties or risk factors is complete. Factors that could cause our actual results to differ from those described in forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

  ¿   deterioration of commercial real estate market fundamentals;

 

  ¿   defaults by our loan counterparties or clients;

 

  ¿   adverse changes in credit quality trends;

 

  ¿   declining asset prices;

 

  ¿   our concentrated credit exposure in commercial, financial, and agricultural loans;

 

  ¿   the extensive and increasing regulation of the U.S. financial services industry;

 

  ¿   changes in accounting policies, standards, and interpretations;

 

  ¿   breaches of security or failures of our technology systems due to technological or other factors and cybersecurity threats;

 

  ¿   operational or risk management failures by us or critical third parties;

 

  ¿   negative outcomes from claims or litigation;

 

  ¿   the occurrence of natural or man-made disasters, conflicts, or terrorist attacks, or other adverse external events;

 

  ¿   increasing capital and liquidity standards under applicable regulatory rules;

 

  ¿   unanticipated changes in our liquidity position, including but not limited to, changes in our access to or the cost of funding, our ability to enter the financial markets and to secure alternative funding sources;

 

  ¿   our ability to receive dividends from our subsidiary, KeyBank;

 

  ¿   downgrades in our credit ratings or those of KeyBank;

 

  ¿   a reversal of the U.S. economic recovery due to financial, political or other shocks;

 

  ¿   our ability to anticipate interest rate changes and manage interest rate risk;

 

  ¿   deterioration of economic conditions in the geographic regions where we operate;

 

  ¿   the soundness of other financial institutions;

 

  ¿   our ability to attract and retain talented executives and employees and to manage our reputational risks;

 

  ¿   our ability to timely and effectively implement our strategic initiatives;

 

  ¿   increased competitive pressure due to industry consolidation;

 

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  ¿   unanticipated adverse effects of strategic partnerships or acquisitions and dispositions of assets or businesses;

 

  ¿   our ability to complete the acquisition of First Niagara and to realize the anticipated benefits of the merger; and

 

  ¿   our ability to develop and effectively use the quantitative models we rely upon in our business planning.

Any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect the impact of subsequent events or circumstances. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider all risks and uncertainties disclosed in our SEC filings, including this report on Form 10-K and our subsequent reports on Forms 10-Q and 8-K and our registration statements under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, all of which are or will upon filing be accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and on our website at www.key.com/ir.

 

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KEYCORP

2015 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Item
Number

        Page
Number
 
   PART I   
1   

Business

     4   
1A   

Risk Factors

     18   
1B   

Unresolved Staff Comments

     30   
2   

Properties

     31   
3   

Legal Proceedings

     31   
4   

Mine Safety Disclosures

     31   
   PART II   
5   

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     32   
6   

Selected Financial Data

     33   
7   

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     34   
7A   

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

     109   
8   

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     110   
  

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

     111   
  

Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     112   
  

Consolidated Financial Statements and Related Notes

     114   
  

Consolidated Balance Sheets

     114   
  

Consolidated Statements of Income

     115   
  

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

     116   
  

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity

     117   
  

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

     118   
  

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     119   
9   

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     224   
9A   

Controls and Procedures

     224   
9B   

Other Information

     224   
   PART III   
10   

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

     225   
11   

Executive Compensation

     225   
12   

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     225   
13   

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     225   
14   

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

     225   
   PART IV   
15   

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

     226   
  

(a) (1) Financial Statements — See listing in Item 8 above

  
  

(a) (2) Financial Statement Schedules — None required

  
  

(a) (3) Exhibits

  
  

Signatures

     229   
  

Exhibits

  

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

KeyCorp, organized in 1958 under the laws of the State of Ohio, is headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. We are a BHC under the BHCA and one of the nation’s largest bank-based financial services companies, with consolidated total assets of approximately $95.1 billion at December 31, 2015. KeyCorp is the parent holding company for KeyBank National Association (“KeyBank”), its principal subsidiary, through which most of our banking services are provided. Through KeyBank and certain other subsidiaries, we provide a wide range of retail and commercial banking, commercial leasing, investment management, consumer finance, commercial mortgage servicing and special servicing, and investment banking products and services to individual, corporate, and institutional clients through two major business segments: Key Community Bank and Key Corporate Bank.

As of December 31, 2015, these services were provided across the country through KeyBank’s 966 full-service retail banking branches and a network of 1,256 ATMs in 12 states, as well as additional offices, online and mobile banking capabilities, and a telephone banking call center. Additional information pertaining to our two business segments is included in the “Line of Business Results” section in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report, and in Note 23 (“Line of Business Results”) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements presented in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which are incorporated herein by reference. KeyCorp and its subsidiaries had an average of 13,483 full-time equivalent employees for 2015.

In addition to the customary banking services of accepting deposits and making loans, our bank and trust company subsidiaries offer personal, securities lending and custody services, personal financial services, access to mutual funds, treasury services, investment banking and capital markets products, and international banking services. Through our bank, trust company, and registered investment adviser subsidiaries, we provide investment management services to clients that include large corporate and public retirement plans, foundations and endowments, high-net-worth individuals, and multi-employer trust funds established for providing pension or other benefits to employees.

We provide other financial services — both within and outside of our primary banking markets — through various nonbank subsidiaries. These services include community development financing, securities underwriting, and brokerage. We also provide merchant services to businesses directly and through an equity participation in a joint venture.

KeyCorp is a legal entity separate and distinct from its banks and other subsidiaries. Accordingly, the right of KeyCorp, its security holders, and its creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of its banks and other subsidiaries is subject to the prior claims of the creditors of such banks and other subsidiaries, except to the extent that KeyCorp’s claims in its capacity as a creditor may be recognized.

Important Terms Used in this Report

As used in this report, references to “Key,” “we,” “our,” “us” and similar terms refer to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyCorp and its subsidiaries. KeyCorp refers solely to the parent holding company, and KeyBank refers solely to KeyCorp’s subsidiary bank, KeyBank National Association. KeyBank (consolidated) refers to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyBank and its subsidiaries.

The acronyms and abbreviations identified in Part II, Item 8. Note 1 (“Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”) hereof are used throughout this report, particularly in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements as well as in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. You may find it helpful to refer to that section as you read this report.

 

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Demographics

We have two major business segments: Key Community Bank and Key Corporate Bank.

Key Community Bank serves individuals and small to mid-sized businesses by offering a variety of deposit, investment, lending, credit card, and personalized wealth management products and business advisory services. These products and services are provided through our relationship managers and specialists working in our 12-state branch network, which is organized into eight internally defined geographic regions: Pacific, Rocky Mountains, Indiana, Western Ohio and Michigan, Eastern Ohio, Western New York, Eastern New York, and New England. In addition, some of these product capabilities are delivered by Key Corporate Bank to clients of Key Community Bank.

The following table presents the geographic diversity of Key Community Bank’s average deposits, commercial loans, and home equity loans.

 

    Geographic Region                          
Year ended
December 31, 2015
dollars in millions
  Pacific            Rocky
Mountains
           Indiana            West Ohio/
Michigan
           East Ohio            Western
New York
           Eastern
New York
           New
England
           NonRegion     (a)     Total         

Average deposits

  $   11,981        $   5,262        $   2,368        $   4,477        $   9,514        $   4,915        $   7,739        $   2,889        $   2,019        $   51,164     

Percent of total

    23.4        %        10.3        %        4.6        %        8.8        %        18.6        %        9.6        %        15.1        %        5.7        %        3.9        %        100.0        %   

Average commercial loans

  $ 3,525        $ 1,734        $ 851        $ 1,155        $ 2,334        $ 622        $ 1,855        $ 820        $ 3,164        $ 16,060     

Percent of total

    21.9        %        10.8        %        5.3        %        7.2        %        14.5        %        3.9        %        11.6        %        5.1        %        19.7        %        100.0        %   

Average home equity loans

  $ 3,263        $ 1,563        $ 496        $ 835        $ 1,263        $ 831        $ 1,276        $ 658        $ 81        $ 10,266     

Percent of total

    31.8        %        15.2        %        4.8        %        8.2        %        12.3        %        8.1        %        12.4        %        6.4        %        .8        %        100.0        %   

 

(a) Represents average deposits, commercial loan products, and home equity loan products centrally managed outside of our eight Key Community Bank regions.

Key Corporate Bank is a full-service corporate and investment bank focused principally on serving the needs of middle market clients in seven industry sectors: consumer, energy, healthcare, industrial, public sector, real estate, and technology. Key Corporate Bank delivers a broad suite of banking and capital markets products to its clients, including syndicated finance, debt and equity capital markets, commercial payments, equipment finance, commercial mortgage banking, derivatives, foreign exchange, financial advisory, and public finance. Key Corporate Bank is also a significant servicer of commercial mortgage loans and a significant special servicer of CMBS. Key Corporate Bank delivers many of its product capabilities to clients of Key Community Bank.

Further information regarding the products and services offered by our Key Community Bank and Key Corporate Bank segments is included in this report in Note 23 (“Line of Business Results”).

 

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Additional Information

The following financial data is included in this report in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference as indicated below:

 

Description of Financial Data    Page(s)  

Selected Financial Data

     36   

Consolidated Average Balance Sheets, Net Interest Income and Yields/Rates from Continuing Operations

     46   

Components of Net Interest Income Changes from Continuing Operations

     48   

Composition of Loans

     58   

Remaining Maturities and Sensitivity of Certain Loans to Changes in Interest Rates

     67   

Securities Available for Sale

     68   

Held-to-Maturity Securities

     69   

Maturity Distribution of Time Deposits of $100,000 or More

     70   

Allocation of the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

     92   

Summary of Loan and Lease Loss Experience from Continuing Operations

     94   

Summary of Nonperforming Assets and Past Due Loans from Continuing Operations

     95   

Exit Loan Portfolio from Continuing Operations

     96   

Summary of Changes in Nonperforming Loans from Continuing Operations

     96   

Short-Term Borrowings

     207   

Our executive offices are located at 127 Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1306, and our telephone number is (216) 689-3000. Our website is www.key.com, and the investor relations section of our website may be reached through www.key.com/ir. We make available free of charge, on or through the investor relations section of our website, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as well as proxy statements, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Also posted on our website, and available in print upon request from any shareholder to our Investor Relations Department, are the charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation and Organization Committee, Executive Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and Risk Committee; our Corporate Governance Guidelines; the Code of Ethics for our directors, officers, and employees; our Standards for Determining Independence of Directors; our policy for Review of Transactions Between KeyCorp and Its Directors, Executive Officers and Other Related Persons; and our Statement of Political Activity. Within the time period required by the SEC and the NYSE, we will post on our website any amendment to the Code of Ethics and any waiver applicable to any senior executive officer or director. We also make available a summary of filings made with the SEC of statements of beneficial ownership of our equity securities filed by our directors and officers under Section 16 of the Exchange Act. The “Regulatory Disclosures and Filings” tab of the investor relations section of our website includes public disclosures concerning our annual and mid-year stress-testing activities under the Dodd-Frank Act and our quarterly regulatory capital disclosures under the third pillar of Basel III.

Information contained on or accessible through our website or any other website referenced in this report is not part of this report. References to websites in this report are intended to be inactive textual references only.

Shareholders may obtain a copy of any of the above-referenced corporate governance documents by writing to our Investor Relations Department at Investor Relations, KeyCorp, 127 Public Square, Mailcode OH-01-27-0737, Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1306; by calling (216) 689-4221; or by sending an e-mail to investor_relations@keybank.com.

 

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Acquisitions and Divestitures

On October 30, 2015, we announced that KeyCorp entered into a definitive agreement and plan of merger pursuant to which KeyCorp will acquire all of the outstanding capital stock of First Niagara. The merger is currently expected to be completed during the third quarter of 2016 and is subject to customary closing conditions, including the approval of regulators and the shareholders of both KeyCorp and First Niagara. For more information on the First Niagara acquisition and other acquisitions and divestitures by Key, see Note 13 (“Acquisitions and Discontinued Operations”), which is incorporated herein by reference.

Competition

The market for banking and related financial services is highly competitive. Key competes with other providers of financial services, such as BHCs, commercial banks, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, investment management firms, investment banking firms, broker-dealers, and other local, regional, national, and global institutions that offer financial services. Some of our competitors are larger and may have more financial resources, while some of our competitors enjoy fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. The financial services industry has become more competitive as technology advances have lowered barriers to entry, enabling more companies, including nonbank companies, to provide financial services. Technological advances may diminish the importance of depository institutions and other financial institutions. We compete by offering quality products and innovative services at competitive prices, and by maintaining our product and service offerings to keep pace with customer preferences and industry standards.

Mergers and acquisitions have led to increased concentration in the banking industry, placing added competitive pressure on Key’s core banking products and services.

Executive Officers of KeyCorp

KeyCorp’s executive officers are principally responsible for making policy for KeyCorp, subject to the supervision and direction of the Board. All executive officers are subject to annual election at the annual organizational meeting of the Board held each May.

Set forth below are the names and ages of the executive officers of KeyCorp as of December 31, 2015, the positions held by each at KeyCorp during the past five years, and the year each first became an executive officer of KeyCorp. Because Messrs. Buffie, Devine, and Kimble and Ms. Brady have been employed at KeyCorp for less than five years, information is being provided concerning their prior business experience. There are no family relationships among the directors or the executive officers.

Amy G. Brady (49) — Ms. Brady is KeyCorp’s Chief Information Officer, serving in that role since May 2012. Prior to joining KeyCorp, Ms. Brady spent 25 years with Bank of America (a financial services institution), where she most recently served as Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer, Enterprise Technology and Operations, supporting technology delivery and operations for crucial enterprise functions. Ms. Brady has been an executive officer of KeyCorp since she joined in 2012.

Craig A. Buffie (55) — Mr. Buffie has been KeyCorp’s Chief Human Resources Officer since February 2013. Prior to joining KeyCorp, Mr. Buffie was employed for 27 years with Bank of America (a financial services institution), where he served in numerous human resources positions, including as a human resources executive for technology and operations for consumer and small business, as well as for its corporate and investment bank. Most recently, he was Head of Home Loan Originations for Bank of America. Mr. Buffie has been an executive officer of KeyCorp since joining in 2013.

Edward J. Burke (59) — Mr. Burke has been the Co-President, Commercial and Private Banking of Key Community Bank since April 2014 and an executive officer of KeyCorp since May 2014. From 2005 until his election as Co-President, Mr. Burke was an Executive Vice President and head of KeyBank Real Estate Capital and Key Community Development Lending.

 

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Dennis A. Devine (44) — Mr. Devine has been the Co-President, Consumer and Small Business of Key Community Bank since April 2014 and an executive officer of KeyCorp since May 2014. From 2012 to 2014, Mr. Devine served as Executive Vice President in various roles, including as head of the Consumer & Small Business Segment and head of Integrated Channels and Community Bank Strategy for Key Community Bank. Prior to joining Key in 2012, Mr. Devine served in various executive capacities with Citizens Financial Group and PNC Bank (financial services institutions).

Trina M. Evans (51) — Ms. Evans has been the Director of Corporate Center for KeyCorp since August 2012, partnering with Key’s executive leadership team and Board to ensure alignment of strategy, objectives, priorities, and messaging across Key. Prior to this role, Ms. Evans was the Chief Administrative Officer for Key Community Bank and the Director of Client Experience for KeyBank. During her career with KeyCorp, she has served in a variety of senior management roles associated with the call center, internet banking, retail banking, distribution management and information technology. She became an executive officer of KeyCorp in March 2013.

Robert A. DeAngelis (54) — Mr. DeAngelis has been the Director of the Enterprise Program Management Office for KeyCorp since November 2011, providing leadership for KeyCorp’s large-scale, organization-wide initiatives. He previously served as the Consumer Segment executive with responsibility for developing client strategies and programs for Key’s Community Bank Consumer and Small Business segments. He became an executive officer of KeyCorp in March 2013.

Christopher M. Gorman (55) — Mr. Gorman has been the President of Key Corporate Bank since 2010. He previously served as a KeyCorp Senior Executive Vice President and head of Key National Banking during 2010. Mr. Gorman was an Executive Vice President of KeyCorp (2002 to 2010) and served as President of KeyBanc Capital Markets (2003 to 2010). He became an executive officer of KeyCorp in 2010.

Paul N. Harris (57) — Mr. Harris has been the General Counsel and Secretary of KeyCorp since 2003 and an executive officer of KeyCorp since 2004.

William L. Hartmann (62) — Mr. Hartmann has been the Chief Risk Officer of KeyCorp since July 2012. Mr. Hartmann joined KeyCorp in 2010 as its Chief Credit Officer. Mr. Hartmann has been an executive officer of KeyCorp since 2012.

Donald R. Kimble (55) — Mr. Kimble has been the Chief Financial Officer of KeyCorp since June 2013. Prior to joining KeyCorp, Mr. Kimble served as Chief Financial Officer of Huntington Bancshares Inc., a bank holding company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio, after joining the company in August 2004, and also served as its Controller from August 2004 to November 2009. Mr. Kimble was also President and a director of Huntington Preferred Capital, Inc., a publicly-traded company, from August 2004 until May 2013. Mr. Kimble became an executive officer upon joining KeyCorp in June 2013.

Beth E. Mooney (60) — Ms. Mooney has been the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of KeyCorp since 2011, and an executive officer of KeyCorp since 2006. Prior to becoming Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, she served in a variety of roles with KeyCorp, including President and Chief Operating Officer and Vice Chair and head of Key Community Bank. Prior to joining KeyCorp, she served in a number of executive and senior finance roles with banks and bank holding companies across the United States. She has been a director of AT&T, a publicly-traded telecommunications company, since 2013.

Douglas M. Schosser (45) — Mr. Schosser has been the Chief Accounting Officer and an executive officer of KeyCorp since May 2015. Prior to becoming the Chief Accounting Officer, Mr. Schosser served as an Integration Manager at KeyCorp. From 2010 to 2014, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of Key Corporate Bank.

 

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Supervision and Regulation

The regulatory framework applicable to BHCs and banks is intended primarily to protect customers and depositors, the DIF, consumers, taxpayers and the banking system as a whole, rather than to protect the security holders and creditors of financial services companies. Comprehensive reform of the legislative and regulatory environment for financial services companies occurred in 2010 and remains ongoing. We cannot predict changes in applicable laws, regulations or regulatory agency policies, but such changes may materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or access to liquidity or credit.

Overview

As a BHC, KeyCorp is subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Federal Reserve under the BHCA. Under the BHCA, BHCs generally may not directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of the voting shares, or substantially all of the assets, of any bank, without prior approval by the Federal Reserve. In addition, BHCs are generally prohibited from engaging in commercial or industrial activities.

Under federal law, a BHC must serve as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary depository institutions by providing financial assistance to them in the event of their financial distress. This support may be required when we do not have the resources to, or would prefer not to, provide it. Certain loans by a BHC to a subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits in, and certain other indebtedness of, the subsidiary bank. In addition, federal law provides that in the bankruptcy of a BHC, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

Federal law establishes a system of regulation under which the Federal Reserve is the umbrella regulator for BHCs, while their subsidiaries are principally regulated by prudential and functional regulators: 1) the OCC for national banks and federal savings associations; 2) the FDIC for non-member state banks and savings associations; 3) the Federal Reserve for member state banks; 4) the CFPB for consumer financial products or services; 5) the SEC and FINRA for securities broker/dealer activities; 6) the SEC, CFTC, and NFA for swaps and other derivatives; and 7) state insurance regulators for insurance activities. Certain specific activities, including traditional bank trust and fiduciary activities, may be conducted in a bank without the bank being deemed a “broker” or a “dealer” in securities for purposes of securities functional regulation. Although the states generally must regulate bank insurance activities in a nondiscriminatory manner, the states may continue to adopt and enforce rules that specifically regulate bank insurance activities in certain identifiable risks.

Our national bank subsidiaries and their subsidiaries are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the OCC. At December 31, 2015, we operated one full-service, FDIC-insured national bank subsidiary, KeyBank, and one national bank subsidiary that is limited to fiduciary activities. The FDIC also has certain regulatory, supervisory and examination authority over KeyBank and KeyCorp under the FDIA and the Dodd-Frank Act.

We have other financial services subsidiaries that are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve, as well as other applicable state and federal regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations. Because KeyBank engages in derivative transactions, in 2013 it provisionally registered as a swap dealer with the CFTC and became a member of the NFA, the self-regulatory organization for participants in the U.S. derivatives industry. Our securities brokerage and asset management subsidiaries are subject to supervision and regulation by the SEC, FINRA, and state securities regulators, and our insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulation by the insurance regulatory authorities of the states in which they operate. Our other nonbank subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations of both the federal government and the various states in which they are authorized to do business.

 

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Regulatory capital and liquidity

Federal banking regulators have promulgated risk-based capital and leverage ratio requirements applicable to Key and KeyBank (consolidated). The adequacy of regulatory capital is assessed periodically by federal banking agencies in their examination and supervision processes, and in the evaluation of applications in connection with certain expansion activities.

Regulatory capital requirements prior to January 1, 2015

At December 31, 2014, the minimum risk-based capital requirements adopted by federal banking regulators were based on a 1988 international accord (“Basel I”) developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”). Prior to January 2015, Key and KeyBank (consolidated) were generally required to maintain a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of 8%. At least half of the total capital had to be “Tier 1 capital,” which consists of qualifying perpetual preferred stock, common shareholders’ equity (excluding AOCI other than the cumulative effect of foreign currency translation), a limited amount of qualifying trust preferred securities, and certain mandatorily convertible preferred securities. The remainder could consist of “Tier 2 capital,” including qualifying subordinated debt, certain hybrid capital instruments, perpetual debt, mandatory convertible debt instruments, qualifying perpetual preferred stock, and a limited amount of the allowance for credit losses. BHCs and banks with securities and commodities trading activities exceeding specified levels were required to maintain capital to cover their market risk exposure. Federal banking regulators also established a minimum leverage ratio requirement for banking organizations. The leverage ratio is Tier 1 capital divided by adjusted average total assets. At December 31, 2014, the minimum leverage ratio was 3% for BHCs and national banks that are considered “strong” by the Federal Reserve or the OCC, respectively, 3% for any BHC that had implemented the Federal Reserve’s risk-based capital measure for market risk, and 4% for all other BHCs and national banks. At December 31, 2014, the minimum leverage ratio for Key and KeyBank (consolidated) was 3% and 4%, respectively. BHCs and national banks may be expected to maintain ratios well above the minimum levels, depending upon their particular condition, risk profile, or growth plans. As presented in Note 22 (“Shareholders’ Equity”), at December 31, 2014, Key and KeyBank (consolidated) had regulatory capital in excess of all applicable minimum risk-based capital (including all adjustments for market risk) and leverage ratio requirements.

Basel III capital and liquidity frameworks

In December 2010, the Basel Committee released its final framework to strengthen international capital regulation of banks, and revised it in June 2011 and January 2014 (as revised, the “Basel III capital framework”). The Basel III capital framework requires higher and better-quality capital, better risk coverage, the introduction of a new leverage ratio as a backstop to the risk-based requirement, and measures to promote the buildup of capital that can be drawn down in periods of stress. The Basel III capital framework, among other things, introduces a new capital measure, “Common Equity Tier 1,” to be included in Tier 1 capital with other capital instruments meeting specified requirements, a capital conservation buffer, and a countercyclical capital buffer. The Basel III capital framework is being phased-in over a multi-year period.

In November 2011, the Basel Committee issued its final rule for a common equity surcharge on certain designated global systemically important banks (“G-SIBs”), which was revised in July 2013 (as revised, “Basel G-SIB framework”). Under the Basel G-SIB framework, a G-SIB is assessed a progressive 1.0% to 3.5% surcharge to the Common Equity Tier 1 capital conservation buffer based upon the bank’s systemic importance score. In July 2015, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule to implement the common equity surcharge on U.S. G-SIBS. The final rule was effective December 1, 2015, although the surcharge, which will be added to the capital conservation buffer under the Regulatory Capital Rules, will be phased in during the January 1, 2016, through January 1, 2019, period. This final rule applies to advanced approaches banking organizations, not “standardized approach” banking organizations like Key.

 

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The Basel Committee published its international liquidity standards in 2010, and revised them in January 2013, January 2014, and October 2014 (as revised, the “Basel III liquidity framework”). It established quantitative standards for liquidity by introducing a liquidity coverage ratio (“Basel III LCR”) and a net stable funding ratio (“Basel III NSFR”). The Basel Committee published final Basel III NSFR disclosure standards in June 2015.

The Basel III LCR, calculated as the ratio of the stock of high-quality liquid assets divided by total net cash outflows over 30 consecutive calendar days, must be at least 100%. The implementation of Basel III LCR began on January 1, 2015, with minimum requirements beginning at 60%, rising in annual steps of 10% until full implementation on January 1, 2019.

The Basel III NSFR, calculated as the ratio of the available amount of stable funding divided by the required amount of stable funding, must be at least 100%. The Basel III NSFR becomes effective on January 1, 2018.

U.S. implementation of the Basel III capital framework

In October 2013, the federal banking regulators published the final Basel III capital framework for U.S. banking organizations (the “Regulatory Capital Rules”), which generally implement the Basel III capital framework as described above in the United States. Under the Regulatory Capital Rules, certain large U.S.-domiciled BHCs and banks (each, an “advanced approaches banking organization”) must satisfy minimum qualifying criteria using organization-specific internal risk measures and management processes for calculating risk-based capital requirements as well as follow certain methodologies to calculate their total risk-weighted assets. Since neither KeyCorp nor KeyBank has at least $250 billion in total consolidated assets or at least $10 billion of total on-balance sheet foreign exposure, neither KeyCorp nor KeyBank is an advanced approaches banking organization. Instead, each of them is a “standardized approach banking organization.”

New minimum capital and leverage ratio requirements

Under the Regulatory Capital Rules, a standardized approach banking organization, like KeyCorp, is required to meet the minimum capital and leverage ratios set forth in the following table. At December 31, 2015, Key had an estimated Common Equity Tier 1 Capital Ratio of 10.85% under the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules. Also at December 31, 2015, based on the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules, Key estimates that its capital and leverage ratios, after adjustment for market risk, would be as set forth in the following table.

Estimated Ratios vs. Minimum Capital Ratios Calculated Under the Fully Phased-In

Regulatory Capital Rules

 

Ratios (including Capital conservation buffer)   

Key

December 31, 2015

Estimated

           

Minimum

January 1,
2015

           

Phase-in

Period

  

Minimum

January 1,
2019

        

Common Equity Tier 1 (a)

     10.84        %         4.5        %       None      4.5        %   

Capital conservation buffer (b)

          —           1/1/16 - 1/1/19      2.5     

Common Equity Tier 1 + Capital conservation buffer

          4.5         1/1/16 - 1/1/19      7.0     

Tier 1 Capital

     11.15           6.0         None      6.0     

Tier 1 Capital + Capital conservation buffer

          6.0         1/1/16 - 1/1/19      8.5     

Total Capital

     12.85           8.0         None      8.0     

Total Capital + Capital conservation buffer

          8.0         1/1/16 - 1/1/19      10.5     

Leverage (c)

     10.59                 4.0               None      4.0           

 

(a) See Figure 4 entitled “GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliations,” which presents the computation for estimated Common Equity Tier 1. The table reconciles the GAAP performance measure to the corresponding non-GAAP measure, which provides a basis for period-to-period comparisons.

 

(b) Capital conservation buffer must consist of Common Equity Tier 1 capital. As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyCorp is not subject to the countercyclical capital buffer of up to 2.5% imposed upon an advanced approaches banking organization under the Regulatory Capital Rules.

 

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(c) As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyCorp is not subject to the 3% supplemental leverage ratio requirement, which becomes effective January 1, 2018.

Revised prompt corrective action capital category ratios

Federal prompt corrective action regulations under the FDIA group FDIC-insured depository institutions into one of five prompt corrective action capital categories: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” In addition to implementing the Basel III capital framework in the U.S., the Regulatory Capital Rules also revised the prompt corrective action capital category threshold ratios applicable to FDIC-insured depository institutions such as KeyBank effective January 1, 2015. The Revised Prompt Corrective Action Rules table below identifies the capital category threshold ratios for a “well capitalized” and an “adequately capitalized” institution under the Regulatory Capital Rules.

“Well Capitalized” and “Adequately Capitalized” Capital Category Ratios under

Revised Prompt Corrective Action Rules

 

Prompt Corrective Action

   Capital Category  
Ratio    Well Capitalized (a)      Adequately Capitalized  

Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based

     6.5         %         4.5         %   

Tier 1 Risk-Based

     8.0            6.0      

Total Risk-Based

     10.0            8.0      

Tier 1 Leverage (b)

     5.0                  4.0            

 

(a) A “well capitalized” institution also must not be subject to any written agreement, order or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.

 

(b) As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyBank is not subject to the 3% supplemental leverage ratio requirement, which becomes effective January 1, 2018.

We believe that, as of December 31, 2015, KeyBank (consolidated) met all revised “well capitalized” prompt corrective action capital and leverage ratio requirements under the Regulatory Capital Rules. The prompt corrective action regulations, however, apply only to FDIC-insured depository institutions (like KeyBank) and not to BHCs (like KeyCorp). Moreover, since the regulatory capital categories under these regulations serve a limited supervisory function, investors should not use them as a representation of the overall financial condition or prospects of KeyBank.

U.S. implementation of the Basel III liquidity framework

In October 2014, the federal banking agencies published the final Basel III liquidity framework for U.S. banking organizations (the “Liquidity Coverage Rules”) that create a minimum LCR for certain internationally active bank and nonbank financial companies (excluding KeyCorp) and a modified version of the LCR (“Modified LCR”) for BHCs and other depository institution holding companies with over $50 billion in consolidated assets that are not internationally active (including KeyCorp).

KeyBank will not be subject to the LCR or the Modified LCR under the Liquidity Coverage Rules unless the OCC affirmatively determines that application to KeyBank is appropriate in light of KeyBank’s asset size, level of complexity, risk profile, scope of operations, affiliation with foreign or domestic covered entities, or risk to the financial system. The LCR and Modified LCR created by the Liquidity Coverage Rules are also an enhanced prudential liquidity standard consistent with the Dodd-Frank Act.

Because KeyCorp is a Modified LCR BHC under the Liquidity Coverage Rules, Key is required to maintain its ratio of high-quality liquid assets to its total net cash outflow amount, determined by prescribed assumptions in a

 

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standardized hypothetical stress scenario over a 30-calendar day period, at least at 90% by January 1, 2016, and at least at 100% by January 1, 2017. At December 31, 2015, Key’s estimated Modified LCR was above 100%. In the future, Key may change the composition of our investment portfolio, increase the size of the overall investment portfolio, and modify product offerings to enhance or optimize our liquidity position. Calculation of Key’s Modified LCR is required on a monthly basis, unlike on a daily basis for those U.S. banking organizations that are subject to the LCR rather than the Modified LCR. On December 1, 2015, the Federal Reserve published an NPR requesting public comment on a proposed rule that would implement quarterly quantitative and qualitative public disclosure requirements regarding the LCR. The proposed rule would require compliance with these requirements beginning on January 1, 2018, for Modified LCR BHCs like KeyCorp. Comments on the NPR were due by February 2, 2016.

The federal banking regulators have not yet issued any proposal to implement either the final Basel III NSFR or the final Basel III NSFR disclosure standards.

Capital planning and stress testing

The Federal Reserve’s capital plan rule requires each U.S.-domiciled, top-tier BHC with total consolidated assets of at least $50 billion (like KeyCorp) to develop and maintain a written capital plan supported by a robust internal capital adequacy process. The capital plan must be submitted annually to the Federal Reserve for supervisory review in connection with its annual CCAR. The supervisory review includes an assessment of many factors, including Key’s ability to maintain capital above each minimum regulatory capital ratio on a pro forma basis under expected and stressful conditions throughout the planning horizon. KeyCorp is also subject to the Federal Reserve’s supervisory expectations for capital planning and capital positions as a large, noncomplex BHC. These expectations are set forth in the Federal Reserve’s guidance issued on December 18, 2015 (“SR Letter 15-19”). Under SR Letter 15-19, the Federal Reserve identifies its core capital planning expectations regarding governance, risk management, internal controls, capital policy, capital positions, incorporating stressful conditions and events, and estimating impact on capital positions for large and noncomplex firms building upon the capital planning requirements under its capital plan and stress test rules. SR Letter 15-19 also provides detailed supervisory expectations on such a firm’s capital planning processes.

The Federal Reserve’s annual CCAR is an intensive assessment of the capital adequacy of large, complex U.S. BHCs and of the practices these BHCs use to assess their capital needs. The Federal Reserve expects BHCs subject to CCAR to have sufficient capital to withstand a severely adverse operating environment and to be able to continue operations, maintain ready access to funding, meet obligations to creditors and counterparties, and serve as credit intermediaries.

KeyCorp filed its 2015 CCAR capital plan on January 5, 2015. KeyCorp is required to submit its 2016 CCAR capital plan by April 6, 2016. The Federal Reserve has indicated that it will announce the results of its supervisory stress tests by June 30, 2016, with the exact date to be announced before then.

As part of the annual CCAR, the Federal Reserve conducts an annual supervisory stress test on KeyCorp. As part of this test, the Federal Reserve projects revenue, expenses, losses, and resulting post-stress capital levels and regulatory capital ratios under conditions that affect the U.S. economy or the financial condition of KeyCorp, including supervisory baseline, adverse, and severely adverse scenarios, that are determined annually by the Federal Reserve. The 2015 CCAR results, which included the annual supervisory stress test methodology and certain firm-specific results for the participating covered companies (including KeyCorp), were publicly released by the Federal Reserve in March 2015.

In December 2015, the Federal Reserve published amendments to its capital plan and stress test rules. Under the amendments, for a standardized approach BHC like KeyCorp, the Federal Reserve has removed the Tier 1 common capital ratio requirement as well as modified certain mandatory capital action assumptions. The modifications to the mandatory capital action assumptions include the requirement for the BHC to assume in its

 

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stress tests that: (i) it issues capital associated with funding a planned acquisition or merger to the extent the merger or acquisition is reflected in the BHC’s pro forma balance sheet estimates, and (ii) it pays planned dividends on any issuance of stock related to expensed employee compensation. The modifications also incorporate the deduction from Tier 1 capital of a BHC’s investment in certain hedge funds and private equity funds that are covered by section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, known as the “Volcker Rule.”

KeyCorp and KeyBank must also conduct their own company-run stress tests to assess the impact of stress scenarios (including supervisor-provided baseline, adverse, and severely adverse scenarios and, for KeyCorp, one KeyCorp-defined baseline scenario and at least one KeyCorp-defined stress scenario) on their consolidated earnings, losses, and capital over a nine-quarter planning horizon, taking into account their current condition, risks, exposures, strategies, and activities. While KeyBank must only conduct an annual stress test, KeyCorp must conduct both an annual and a mid-cycle stress test. KeyCorp and KeyBank are required to report the results of their annual stress tests to the Federal Reserve and OCC. KeyCorp is required to report the results of its mid-cycle stress test to the Federal Reserve. KeyCorp and KeyBank published the results of their company-run annual stress test on March 5, 2015. KeyCorp published the results of its company-run mid-cycle stress test on July 28, 2015. Summaries of the results of these company-run stress tests are disclosed each year under the “Regulatory Disclosure” tab of Key’s Investor Relations website: http://www.key.com/ir.

Dividend restrictions

Federal banking law and regulations impose limitations on the payment of dividends by our national bank subsidiaries, (like KeyBank). Historically, dividends paid by KeyBank have been an important source of cash flow for KeyCorp to pay dividends on its equity securities and interest on its debt. Dividends by our national bank subsidiaries are limited to the lesser of the amounts calculated under an earnings retention test and an undivided profits test. Under the earnings retention test, without the prior approval of the OCC, a dividend may not be paid if the total of all dividends declared by a bank in any calendar year is in excess of the current year’s net income combined with the retained net income of the two preceding years. Under the undivided profits test, a dividend may not be paid in excess of a bank’s undivided profits. Moreover, under the FDIA, an insured depository institution may not pay a dividend if the payment would cause it to be in a less than “adequately capitalized” prompt corrective action capital category or if the institution is in default in the payment of an assessment due to the FDIC. For more information about the payment of dividends by KeyBank to KeyCorp, please see Note 3 (“Restrictions on Cash, Dividends and Lending Activities”) in this report.

FDIA, Resolution Authority and Financial Stability

Deposit insurance and assessments

The DIF provides insurance coverage for domestic deposits funded through assessments on insured depository institutions like KeyBank. The amount of deposit insurance coverage for each depositor’s deposits is $250,000 per depository.

The FDIC must assess the premium based on an insured depository institution’s assessment base, calculated as its average consolidated total assets minus its average tangible equity. KeyBank’s current annualized premium assessments can range from $.025 to $.45 for each $100 of its assessment base. The rate charged depends on KeyBank’s performance on the FDIC’s “large and highly complex institution” risk-assessment scorecard, which includes factors such as KeyBank’s regulatory rating, its ability to withstand asset and funding-related stress, and the relative magnitude of potential losses to the FDIC in the event of KeyBank’s failure.

In November 2015, the FDIC published an NPR and request for comments proposing to impose a surcharge, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act, on the quarterly deposit insurance assessments of insured depository institutions having total consolidated assets of at least $10 billion (like KeyBank). Such surcharge would begin the calendar quarter after the DIF reserve ratio first reaches or exceeds 1.15% and would continue through the quarter that it

 

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first reaches or exceeds 1.35%. At September 30, 2015, the DIF reserve ratio was 1.09%. The surcharge would equal an annual rate of 0.00045% applied to the institution’s assessment base (with certain adjustments). The FDIC expects that these surcharges will commence in 2016 and that they should be sufficient to raise the DIF reserve ratio to 1.35% in approximately eight quarters (i.e., before the end of 2018). If, contrary to the FDIC’s expectations, the DIF reserve ratio does not reach 1.35% by December 31, 2018 (provided it is at least 1.15%), the FDIC would impose a shortfall assessment on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of at least $10 billion (like KeyBank) on March 31, 2019. The comment period for the NPR expired in early January 2016.

Conservatorship and receivership of insured depository institutions

Upon the insolvency of an insured depository institution, the FDIC will be appointed as receiver or, in rare circumstances, conservator for the insolvent institution under the FDIA. In an insolvency, the FDIC may repudiate or disaffirm any contract to which the institution is a party if the FDIC determines that performance of the contract would be burdensome and that disaffirming or repudiating the contract would promote orderly administration of the institution’s affairs. If the contractual counterparty made a claim against the receivership (or conservatorship) for breach of contract, the amount paid to the counterparty would depend upon, among other factors, the receivership (or conservatorship) assets available to pay the claim and the priority of the claim relative to others. In addition, the FDIC may enforce most contracts entered into by the insolvent institution, notwithstanding any provision that would terminate, cause a default, accelerate or give other rights under the contract solely because of the insolvency, the appointment of the receiver (or conservator), or the exercise of rights or powers by the receiver (or conservator). The FDIC may also transfer any asset or liability of the insolvent institution without obtaining approval or consent from the institution’s shareholders or creditors. These provisions would apply to obligations and liabilities of KeyCorp’s insured depository institution subsidiaries, such as KeyBank, including obligations under senior or subordinated debt issued to public investors.

Receivership of certain SIFIs

The Dodd-Frank Act created a new resolution regime, as an alternative to bankruptcy, known as the “orderly liquidation authority” (“OLA”) for certain SIFIs, including BHCs and their affiliates. Under the OLA, the FDIC would generally be appointed as receiver to liquidate and wind up a failing SIFI. The determination that a SIFI should be placed into OLA receivership is made by the U.S. Treasury Secretary, who must conclude that the SIFI is in default or in danger of default and that the SIFI’s failure poses a risk to the stability of the U.S. financial system. This determination must come after supermajority recommendations by the Federal Reserve and the FDIC, and consultation between the U.S. Treasury Secretary and the President.

If the FDIC is appointed as receiver under the OLA, its powers and the rights and obligations of creditors and other relevant parties would be determined exclusively under the OLA. The powers of a receiver under the OLA are generally based on the FDIC’s powers as receiver for insured depository institutions under the FDIA. Certain provisions of the OLA were modified to reduce disparate treatment of creditors’ claims between the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and the OLA. However, substantial differences between the two regimes remain, including the FDIC’s right to disregard claim priority in some circumstances, the use of an administrative claims procedure under OLA to determine creditors’ claims (rather than a judicial procedure in bankruptcy), the FDIC’s right to transfer claims to a bridge entity, and limitations on the ability of creditors to enforce contractual cross-defaults against potentially viable affiliates of the entity in receivership. OLA liquidity would be provided through credit support from the U.S. Treasury and assessments made, first, on claimants against the receivership that received more in the OLA resolution than they would have received in ordinary liquidation (to the full extent of the excess), and second, if necessary, on SIFIs, like KeyCorp, utilizing a risk-based methodology.

In December 2013, the FDIC published a notice for comment regarding its “single point of entry” resolution strategy under the OLA. This strategy involves the appointment of the FDIC as receiver for the SIFI’s top-level U.S. holding company only, while permitting the operating subsidiaries of the failed holding company to

 

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continue operations uninterrupted. As receiver, the FDIC would establish a bridge financial company for the failed holding company and would transfer the assets and a very limited set of liabilities of the receivership estate. The claims of unsecured creditors and other claimants in the receivership would be satisfied by the exchange of their claims for the securities of one or more new holding companies emerging from the bridge company. The FDIC has not taken any subsequent regulatory action relating to this resolution strategy under OLA since the comment period ended in March 2014.

Depositor preference

The FDIA provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, the claims of its depositors (including claims of its depositors that have subrogated to the FDIC) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as receiver have priority over other general unsecured claims. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will be placed ahead of unsecured, nondeposit creditors, including the institution’s parent BHC and subordinated creditors, in order of priority of payment.

Resolution plans

BHCs with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, like KeyCorp, are required to periodically submit to the Federal Reserve and FDIC a plan discussing how the company could be rapidly and orderly resolved if the company failed or experienced material financial distress. Insured depository institutions with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, like KeyBank, are also required to submit a resolution plan to the FDIC. These plans are due annually by December 31 of each year. For 2015, these resolution plans, the third required from KeyCorp and KeyBank, were submitted on December 1, 2015. Annually, in January, the Federal Reserve and FDIC make available on their websites the public sections of resolution plans for the companies, including KeyCorp and KeyBank, that submitted plans in the prior December. The public section of the resolution plans of KeyCorp and KeyBank is available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/bankinforeg/resolution-plans.htm and https://www.fdic.gov/regulations/reform/resplans/.

Financial Stability Oversight Council

The Dodd-Frank Act created the FSOC, a systemic risk oversight body, to: (i) identify risks to U.S. financial stability that could arise from the material financial distress or failure, or ongoing activities, of large, interconnected SIFIs, or that could arise outside the financial services marketplace, (ii) promote market discipline by eliminating expectations that the U.S. government will shield shareholders, creditors, and counterparties from losses in the event of failure, and (iii) respond to emerging threats to the stability of the U.S. financial system. The FSOC is responsible for facilitating regulatory coordination, information collection and sharing, designating nonbank financial companies for consolidated supervision by the Federal Reserve, designating systemic financial market utilities and systemic payment, clearing, and settlement activities requiring prescribed risk management standards and heightened federal regulatory oversight, recommending stricter standards for SIFIs, and, together with the Federal Reserve, determining whether action should be taken to break up firms that pose a grave threat to U.S. financial stability.

The Bank Secrecy Act

The BSA requires all financial institutions (including banks and securities broker-dealers) to, among other things, maintain a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. It includes a variety of recordkeeping and reporting requirements (such as cash and suspicious activity reporting) as well as due diligence and know-your-customer documentation requirements. Key has established and maintains an anti-money laundering program to comply with the BSA’s requirements.

 

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Other Regulatory Developments under the Dodd-Frank Act

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, a consumer financial services regulator with supervisory authority over banks and their affiliates with assets of more than $10 billion, like Key, to carry out federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB also regulates financial products and services sold to consumers and has rulemaking authority with respect to federal consumer financial laws. Any new regulatory requirements promulgated by the CFPB or modifications in the interpretations of existing regulations could require changes to Key’s consumer-facing businesses. The Dodd-Frank Act also gives the CFPB broad data collecting powers for fair lending for both small business and mortgage loans, as well as extensive authority to prevent unfair, deceptive and abusive practices.

Volcker Rule

The Volcker Rule implements Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act. The Volcker Rule prohibits “banking entities,” such as KeyCorp, KeyBank and their affiliates and subsidiaries, from owning, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds (referred to as “covered funds”) and engaging in short-term proprietary trading of securities, derivatives, commodity futures and options on these instruments.

The Volcker Rule excepts certain transactions from the general prohibition against proprietary trading, including transactions in government securities (e.g., U.S. Treasuries or any instruments issued by the GNMA, FNMA, FHLMC, a Federal Home Loan Bank, or any state or a political division of any state, among others); transactions in connection with underwriting or market-making activities; and, transactions as a fiduciary on behalf of customers. Banking entities may also engage in risk-mitigating hedges if the entity can demonstrate that the hedge reduces or mitigates a specific, identifiable risk or aggregate risk position of the entity. The banking entity is required to conduct an analysis supporting its hedging strategy and the effectiveness of the hedges must be monitored and, if necessary, adjusted on an ongoing basis. Banking entities with more than $50 billion in total consolidated assets and liabilities, like Key, that engage in permitted trading transactions are required to implement enhanced compliance programs, to regularly report data on trading activities to the regulators, and to provide a CEO attestation that the entity’s compliance program is reasonably designed to comply with the Volcker Rule.

Although the Volcker Rule became effective on April 1, 2014, on December 18, 2014, the Federal Reserve exercised its unilateral authority to extend the compliance deadline until July 21, 2016, with respect to covered funds. The Federal Reserve further indicated its intent to grant an additional one-year extension of the compliance deadline until July 21, 2017, and indicated it would re-evaluate its rules relating to the process by which banking entities would be able to apply for further five-year extensions. Key does not anticipate that the proprietary trading restrictions in the Volcker Rule will have a material impact on its business, but it may be required to divest certain fund investments as discussed in more detail under the heading “Other investments” in Item 7 of this report.

Enhanced prudential standards and early remediation requirements

Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve must impose enhanced prudential standards and early remediation requirements upon BHCs, like KeyCorp, with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets. Prudential standards must include enhanced risk-based capital requirements and leverage limits, liquidity requirements, risk-management and risk committee requirements, resolution plan requirements, credit exposure report requirements, single counterparty credit limits (“SCCL”), supervisory and company-run stress test requirements and, for certain financial companies, a debt-to-equity limit. Early remediation requirements must include limits on capital distributions, acquisitions, and asset growth in early stages of financial decline and capital restoration plans, capital raising requirements, limits on transactions with affiliates, management changes, and asset sales in later stages of financial decline, which are to be triggered by forward-looking indicators including regulatory capital and liquidity measures.

 

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The stress test requirements applicable to KeyCorp were implemented by a final rule adopted by the Federal Reserve in 2012. The resolution plan requirements applicable to KeyCorp were implemented by a joint final rule adopted by the Federal Reserve and FDIC in 2011.

In March 2014, the Federal Reserve published a final rule to implement certain of these required enhanced prudential standards. The enhanced prudential standards implemented by this final rule were: (i) the incorporation of the Regulatory Capital Rules through the Federal Reserve’s previously finalized rules on capital planning and stress tests, (ii) liquidity requirements relating to cash flow projections, a contingency funding plan, liquidity risk limits, monitoring liquidity risks (with respect to collateral, legal entities, currencies, business lines, and intraday exposures), liquidity stress testing, and a liquidity buffer, (iii) the risk management framework, the risk committee, and the chief risk officer as well as the corporate governance requirements as they relate to liquidity risk management, including the requirements that apply to the board of directors, the risk committee, senior management, and the independent review function, and (iv) a 15-to-1 debt-to-equity limit for companies that the FSOC determines pose a “grave threat” to U.S. financial stability. KeyCorp was required to comply with the final rule starting on January 1, 2015.

The SCCL and the early remediation requirements published in January 2012 by the Federal Reserve as a proposed rule, however, were not included as part of the March 2014 final rule. It is unclear when the Federal Reserve will finalize the early remediation requirements. No credit exposure reporting requirements, which must be implemented jointly by the Federal Reserve and FDIC, have yet been proposed. The Federal Reserve has indicated that both the Federal Reserve and FDIC recognize that such reports would be most useful and complete if developed in conjunction with the SCCL.

Bank transactions with affiliates

Federal banking law and regulation imposes qualitative standards and quantitative limitations upon certain transactions by a bank with its affiliates, including the bank’s parent BHC and certain companies the parent BHC may be deemed to control for these purposes. Transactions covered by these provisions must be on arm’s-length terms, and cannot exceed certain amounts that are determined with reference to the bank’s regulatory capital. Moreover, if the transaction is a loan or other extension of credit, it must be secured by collateral in an amount and quality expressly prescribed by statute, and if the affiliate is unable to pledge sufficient collateral, the BHC may be required to provide it. These provisions materially restrict the ability of KeyBank to fund its affiliates, including KeyCorp, KBCM, certain of the Victory mutual funds with which we continue to have a relationship, and KeyCorp’s nonbanking subsidiaries engaged in making merchant banking investments (and certain companies in which these subsidiaries have invested).

Provisions added by the Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of: (i) the definition of affiliate to include any investment fund having any bank or BHC-affiliated company as an investment adviser, (ii) credit exposures subject to the prohibition on the acceptance of low-quality assets or securities issued by an affiliate as collateral, the quantitative limits, and the collateralization requirements to now include credit exposures arising out of derivative, repurchase agreement, and securities lending/borrowing transactions, and (iii) transactions subject to quantitative limits to now also include credit collateralized by affiliate-issued debt obligations that are not securities. In addition, these provisions require that a credit extension to an affiliate remain secured in accordance with the collateral requirements at all times that it is outstanding, rather than the previous requirement of only at the inception or upon material modification of the transaction. These provisions also raise significantly the procedural and substantive hurdles required to obtain a regulatory exemption from the affiliate transaction requirements. While these provisions became effective on July 21, 2012, the Federal Reserve has not yet issued a proposed rule to implement them.

 

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

As a financial services organization, we are subject to a number of risks inherent in our transactions and present in the business decisions we make. Described below are the primary risks and uncertainties that if realized could

 

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have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, and our access to liquidity. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks we face.

Our ERM program incorporates risk management throughout our organization to identify, understand, and manage the risks presented by our business activities. Our ERM program identifies Key’s major risk categories as: credit risk, compliance risk, operational risk, liquidity risk, market risk, reputation risk, strategic risk, and model risk. These risk factors, and other risks we may face, are discussed in more detail in other sections of this report.

I.  Credit Risk

Should the fundamentals of the commercial real estate market deteriorate, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The strong recovery in commercial real estate, in particular the multifamily property sector, has contributed to a surge in investment and development activity. As a result, property values are elevated and oversupply is a concern in certain markets. Substantial deterioration in property market fundamentals could have an impact on our portfolio, with a large portion of our clients active in real estate and specifically multifamily real estate. A correction in the real estate markets could impact the ability of borrowers to make debt service payments on loans. A portion of our commercial real estate loans are construction loans. Typically these properties are not fully leased at loan origination; the borrower may require additional leasing through the life of the loan to provide cash flow to support debt service payments. If property market fundamentals deteriorate sharply, the execution of new leases could slow, compromising the borrower’s ability to cover the debt service payments.

We are subject to the risk of defaults by our loan counterparties and clients.

Many of our routine transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. Our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices insufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of counterparties and clients, including financial statements, credit reports and other information. We may also rely on representations of those counterparties, clients, or other third parties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. The inaccuracy of that information or those representations affects our ability to accurately evaluate the default risk of a counterparty or client.

Various factors may cause our allowance for loan and lease losses to increase.

We maintain an ALLL (a reserve established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged to expense) that represents our estimate of losses based on our evaluation of risks within our existing portfolio of loans. The level of the allowance reflects our ongoing evaluation of industry concentrations; specific credit risks; loan and lease loss experience; current loan portfolio quality; present economic, political and regulatory conditions; and incurred losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the ALLL inherently involves a degree of subjectivity and requires that we make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, the stagnation of certain economic indicators that we are more susceptible to, such as unemployment and real estate values, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may indicate the need for an increase in the ALLL. Bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ALLL and, based on judgments that can differ somewhat from those of our own management, may necessitate an increase in the provision for loan and lease losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the ALLL (i.e., if the loan and lease allowance is inadequate), we will need additional loan and lease loss provisions to increase the ALLL, which would decrease our net income and capital.

 

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Declining asset prices could adversely affect us.

During the Great Recession, the volatility and disruption that the capital and credit markets experienced reached extreme levels. This severe market disruption led to the failure of several substantial financial institutions, causing the widespread liquidation of assets and constraining the credit markets. These asset sales, along with asset sales by other leveraged investors, including some hedge funds, rapidly drove down prices and valuations across a wide variety of traded asset classes. Asset price deterioration has a negative effect on the valuation of many of the asset categories represented on our balance sheet, and reduces our ability to sell assets at prices we deem acceptable. Although the recovery has been in place for some time, a further recession would likely reverse recent positive trends in asset prices.

We have concentrated credit exposure in commercial, financial and agricultural loans, commercial real estate loans, and commercial leases.

As of December 31, 2015, approximately 74% of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial, financial and agricultural loans, commercial real estate loans, including commercial mortgage and construction loans, and commercial leases. These types of loans are typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans, and have a different risk profile that includes, among other risks, a borrower’s failure to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations. The deterioration of a larger loan or a group of these loans could cause a significant increase in nonperforming loans, which would result in net loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan and lease losses, and an increase in loan charge-offs.

II.  Compliance Risk

We are subject to extensive and increasing government regulation and supervision.

As a financial services institution, we are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision, which has increased in recent years due to the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and other financial reform initiatives. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, the DIF, consumers, taxpayers, and the banking system as a whole, not our debtholders or shareholders. These regulations increase our costs and affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, ability to repurchase our common shares, and growth, among other things.

We face increased regulation of our industry as a result of current and future initiatives intended to provide financial market stability and enhance the liquidity and solvency of financial institutions. We expect continued intense scrutiny from our bank supervisors in the examination process and aggressive enforcement of regulations at the federal and state levels, particularly due to KeyBank’s and KeyCorp’s status as covered institutions under the Dodd-Frank Act’s heightened prudential standards and regulations. We also face increased regulation from efforts designed to protect consumers from financial abuse. Although many parts of the Dodd-Frank Act are now in effect, other parts continue to be implemented. As a result, some uncertainty remains as to the aggregate impact upon Key of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Changes to existing statutes, regulations or regulatory policies or their interpretation or implementation, and becoming subject to additional heightened regulatory practices, requirements, or expectations, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. These changes may subject us to additional costs and increase our litigation risk should we fail to appropriately comply. Such changes may also limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, affect the investments we make, and change the manner in which we operate.

Additionally, federal banking law grants substantial enforcement powers to federal banking regulators. This enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease and desist or removal orders and to initiate injunctive actions against banking organizations and affiliated parties.

 

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These enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws and regulations, for practices determined to be unsafe or unsound, or for practices or acts that are determined to be unfair, deceptive, or abusive.

For more information, see “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report.

Changes in accounting policies, standards, and interpretations could materially affect how we report our financial condition and results of operations.

The FASB and other bodies that establish accounting standards periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards governing the preparation of Key’s financial statements. Additionally, those bodies that establish and/or interpret the financial accounting and reporting standards (such as the FASB, SEC, and banking regulators) may change prior interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. These changes can be difficult to predict and can materially affect how Key records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, Key could be required to retroactively apply a new or revised standard, resulting in changes to previously reported financial results.

III.  Operational Risk

We are subject to a variety of operational risks.

In addition to the other risks discussed in this section, we are subject to operational risk, which represents the risk of loss resulting from human error, inadequate or failed internal processes and systems, and external events. Operational risk includes the risk of fraud by employees, clerical and record-keeping errors, nonperformance by vendors, threats to cybersecurity, and computer/telecommunications malfunctions. Operational risk also encompasses compliance and legal risk, which is the risk of loss from violations of, or noncompliance with, laws, rules, regulations, prescribed practices or ethical standards, as well as the risk of our noncompliance with contractual and other obligations. We are also exposed to operational risk through our outsourcing arrangements, and the effect that changes in circumstances or capabilities of our outsourcing vendors can have on our ability to continue to perform operational functions necessary to our business, such as certain loan processing functions. For example, breakdowns or failures of our vendors’ systems or employees could be a source of operational risk to us. Resulting losses from operational risk could take the form of explicit charges, increased operational costs, harm to our reputation, inability to secure insurance, litigation, regulatory intervention or sanctions or foregone business opportunities.

Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.

We rely heavily on communications, information systems (both internal and provided by third parties) and the Internet to conduct our business. Our business is dependent on our ability to process and monitor large numbers of daily transactions in compliance with legal, regulatory and internal standards and specifications. In addition, a significant portion of our operations relies heavily on the secure processing, storage and transmission of personal and confidential information, such as the personal information of our customers and clients. These risks may increase in the future as we continue to increase mobile payments and other internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and applications.

In the event of a failure, interruption or breach of our information systems, we may be unable to avoid impact to our customers. Other U.S. financial service institutions and companies have reported breaches, some severe, in the security of their websites or other systems and several financial institutions, including Key, experienced significant distributed denial-of-service attacks, some of which involved sophisticated and targeted attacks intended to disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems. Other potential attacks have attempted to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information or destroy data, often through the introduction of computer viruses or malware, phishing, cyberattacks, and other means. To date, none of these efforts has had a material adverse effect on our business or operations. Such security attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources,

 

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including persons who are involved with organized crime or who may be linked to terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments. Those same parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or that of our customers or clients. Our security systems may not be able to protect our information systems from similar attacks due to the rapid evolution and creation of sophisticated cyberattacks. We are also subject to the risk that our employees may intercept and transmit unauthorized confidential or proprietary information. An interception, misuse or mishandling of personal, confidential or proprietary information being sent to or received from a customer or third party could result in legal liability, remediation costs, regulatory action, and reputational harm.

We rely on third parties to perform significant operational services for us.

Third parties perform significant operational services on our behalf. These third parties are subject to similar risks as Key relating to cybersecurity, breakdowns or failures of their own systems or employees. One or more of these third parties may experience a cybersecurity event or operational disruption and, if any such event does occur, it may not be adequately addressed, either operationally or financially, by such third party. Certain of these third parties may have limited indemnification obligations or may not have the financial capacity to satisfy their indemnification obligations. Financial or operational difficulties of a third party could also impair our operations if those difficulties interfere with such third party’s ability to serve us. Additionally, some of our outsourcing arrangements are located overseas and, therefore, are subject to risks unique to the regions in which they operate. If a critical third party is unable to meet our needs in a timely manner or if the services or products provided by such third party are terminated or otherwise delayed and if we are not able to develop alternative sources for these services and products quickly and cost-effectively, it could have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, regulatory guidance adopted by federal banking regulators related to how banks select, engage and manage their third parties affects the circumstances and conditions under which we work with third parties and the cost of managing such relationships.

We are subject to claims and litigation.

From time to time, customers, vendors or other parties may make claims and take legal action against us. We maintain reserves for certain claims when deemed appropriate based upon our assessment that a loss is probable, estimable, and consistent with applicable accounting guidance. At any given time we have a variety of legal actions asserted against us in various stages of litigation. Resolution of a legal action can often take years. Whether any particular claims and legal actions are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in our favor, they may result in significant financial liability and adversely affect how the market perceives us and our products and services as well as impact customer demand for those products and services.

We are also involved, from time to time, in other reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business, including, among other things, accounting and operational matters, certain of which may result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. The number and risk of these investigations and proceedings has increased in recent years with regard to many firms in the financial services industry due to legal changes to the consumer protection laws provided for by the Dodd-Frank Act and the creation of the CFPB.

There have also been a number of highly publicized legal claims against financial institutions involving fraud or misconduct by employees, and we run the risk that employee misconduct could occur. It is not always possible to deter or prevent employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases.

Our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented, and our methods of reducing risk exposure may not be effective.

We regularly review and update our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. We also maintain an ERM program designed to identify, measure, monitor, report and analyze our risks. Any system of controls and any system to reduce risk exposure, however well

 

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designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Additionally, instruments, systems and strategies used to hedge or otherwise manage exposure to various types of market compliance, credit, liquidity, operational and business risks and enterprise-wide risk could be less effective than anticipated. As a result, we may not be able to effectively mitigate our risk exposures in particular market environments or against particular types of risk.

Climate change, severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could significantly impact our business.

Natural disasters, including severe weather events of increasing strength and frequency due to climate change, acts of war or terrorism, and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our ability to conduct business or upon third parties who perform operational services for us or our customers. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in lost revenue or cause us to incur additional expenses.

IV.  Liquidity Risk

Capital and liquidity requirements imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act require banks and BHCs to maintain more and higher quality capital and more and higher quality liquid assets than has historically been the case.

New and evolving capital standards resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act and the Regulatory Capital Rules adopted by our regulators will have a significant impact on banks and BHCs, including Key. For a detailed explanation of the new capital and liquidity rules that became effective for us on a phased-in basis on January 1, 2015, see the section titled “Regulatory capital and liquidity” under the heading “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report.

The Federal Reserve’s new capital standards will require Key to maintain more and higher quality capital and could limit our business activities (including lending) and our ability to expand organically or through acquisitions. They could also result in our taking steps to increase our capital that may be dilutive to shareholders or limit our ability to pay dividends or otherwise return capital to shareholders. Capital securities usually are the most expensive form of funding, and increasing capital levels could adversely impact Key’s profitability.

In addition, the new liquidity standards will require us to increase our holdings of higher-quality liquid assets, may require us to change our mix of investment alternatives, and may impact business relationships with certain customers. Additionally, support of the new liquidity standards may be satisfied through the use of term wholesale borrowings, which tend to have a higher cost of funds than that of traditional core deposits.

Further, the Federal Reserve requires bank holding companies to obtain approval before making a “capital distribution,” such as paying or increasing dividends, implementing common stock repurchase programs, or redeeming or repurchasing capital instruments. The Federal Reserve has detailed the processes that bank holding companies should maintain to ensure they hold adequate capital under severely adverse conditions and have ready access to funding before engaging in any capital activities. These rules could limit Key’s ability to make distributions, including paying out dividends or buying back shares. For more information, see the section titled “Regulatory capital and liquidity” under the heading “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report.

Federal agencies may take actions that disrupt the stability of the U.S. financial system.

Since 2008, the federal government has taken unprecedented steps to provide stability to and confidence in the financial markets. For example, the Federal Reserve maintains a variety of stimulus policy measures designed to maintain a low interest rate environment. In light of recent moderate improvements in the U.S. economy, federal

 

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agencies may no longer support such initiatives. The discontinuation of such initiatives may have unanticipated or unintended impacts, perhaps severe, on the financial markets. These effects could include a sudden move to higher debt yields, which could have an unfavorable effect on the quantity and cost of borrowed funds. In addition, new initiatives or legislation may not be implemented, or, if implemented, may not be adequate to counter any negative effects of discontinuing programs or, in the event of an economic downturn, to support and stabilize the economy.

We rely on dividends by our subsidiaries for most of our funds.

We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our subsidiaries. With the exception of cash that we may raise from debt and equity issuances, we receive substantially all of our funding from dividends by our subsidiaries. Dividends by our subsidiaries are the principal source of funds for the dividends we pay on our common and preferred stock and interest and principal payments on our debt. Federal banking law and regulations limit the amount of dividends that KeyBank (KeyCorp’s largest subsidiary) can pay. For further information on the regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends by KeyBank, see “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report.

In the event KeyBank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common or preferred stock. Such a situation could result in Key losing access to alternative wholesale funding sources. In addition, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors.

We are subject to liquidity risk, which could negatively affect our funding levels.

Market conditions or other events could negatively affect our access to or the cost of funding, affecting our ongoing ability to accommodate liability maturities and deposit withdrawals, meet contractual obligations, or fund asset growth and new business initiatives at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner and without adverse consequences.

Although we maintain a liquid asset portfolio and have implemented strategies to maintain sufficient and diverse sources of funding to accommodate planned as well as unanticipated changes in assets, liabilities, and off-balance sheet commitments under various economic conditions (including reducing our capacity of wholesale funding sources), a substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in the level or cost of liquidity could have a material adverse effect on us. If the cost effectiveness or the availability of supply in these credit markets is reduced for a prolonged period of time, our funding needs may require us to access funding and manage liquidity by other means. These alternatives may include generating client deposits, securitizing or selling loans, extending the maturity of wholesale borrowings, borrowing under certain secured borrowing arrangements, using relationships developed with a variety of fixed income investors, and further managing loan growth and investment opportunities. These alternative means of funding may result in an increase to the overall cost of funds and may not be available under stressed conditions, which would cause us to liquidate a portion of our liquid asset portfolio to meet any funding needs.

Our credit ratings affect our liquidity position.

The rating agencies regularly evaluate the securities of KeyCorp and KeyBank, and their ratings of our long-term debt and other securities are based on a number of factors, including our financial strength, ability to generate earnings, and other factors. Some of these factors are not entirely within our control, such as conditions affecting the financial services industry and the economy and changes in rating methodologies as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act. We may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings. Following Key’s announced acquisition of First Niagara in October 2015, S&P and Fitch affirmed Key’s ratings but changed the outlook to negative. Moody’s placed Key’s ratings under review for downgrade. The Moody’s review could be outstanding beyond the targeted merger completion date. A rating downgrade of the securities of KeyCorp or KeyBank could

 

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adversely affect our access to liquidity and could significantly increase our cost of funds, trigger additional collateral or funding requirements, and decrease the number of investors and counterparties willing to lend to us, reducing our ability to generate income.

V.  Market Risk

A reversal of the U.S. economic recovery and a return to volatile or recessionary conditions in the U.S. or abroad could negatively affect our business or our access to capital markets.

A worsening of economic and market conditions, downside shocks, or a return to recessionary economic conditions could result in adverse effects on Key and others in the financial services industry. Additionally, the prolonged low-interest rate environment, despite a generally improving economy, has presented a challenge for Key and affected our business and financial performance. The low-interest rate environment may persist for some time even as the economy continues to improve, and may continue to have a negative impact on our performance.

In particular, we could face some of the following risks, and other unforeseeable risks, in connection with a downturn in the economic and market environment or in the face of downside shocks or a recession, whether in the United States or internationally:

 

  ¿   A loss of confidence in the financial services industry and the equity markets by investors, placing pressure on the price of Key’s common shares or decreasing the credit or liquidity available to Key;

 

  ¿   A decrease in consumer and business confidence levels generally, decreasing credit usage and investment or increasing delinquencies and defaults;

 

  ¿   A decrease in household or corporate incomes, reducing demand for Key’s products and services;

 

  ¿   A decrease in the value of collateral securing loans to Key’s borrowers or a decrease in the quality of Key’s loan portfolio, increasing loan charge-offs and reducing Key’s net income;

 

  ¿   A decrease in our ability to liquidate positions at acceptable market prices;

 

  ¿   The extended continuation of the current low-interest rate environment, continuing or increasing downward pressure to our net interest income;

 

  ¿   A decrease in the accuracy and viability of our quantitative models;

 

  ¿   An increase in competition and consolidation in the financial services industry;

 

  ¿   Increased concern over and scrutiny of the capital and liquidity levels of financial institutions generally, and those of our transaction counterparties specifically;

 

  ¿   A decrease in confidence in the creditworthiness of the United States or other governments whose securities we hold; and

 

  ¿   An increase in limitations on or the regulation of financial services companies like Key.

We are subject to interest rate risk, which could adversely affect net interest income.

Our earnings are largely dependent upon our net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and securities and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowed funds. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions, the competitive environment within our markets, consumer preferences for specific loan and deposit products and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, in particular, the Federal Reserve. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rate controls being applied by the Federal Reserve, could influence the amount of interest we receive on loans

 

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and securities, the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, and the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities. If the interest we pay on deposits and other borrowings increases at a faster rate than the interest we receive on loans and other investments, net interest income, and therefore our earnings, would be adversely affected. Conversely, earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest we receive on loans and other investments falls more quickly than the interest we pay on deposits and other borrowings.

Our methods for simulating and analyzing our interest rate exposure are discussed more fully under the heading “Risk Management — Management of interest risk exposure” found in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation.

Our profitability depends upon economic conditions in the geographic regions where we have significant operations and on certain market segments with which we conduct significant business.

We have concentrations of loans and other business activities in geographic regions where our bank branches are located — Pacific; Rocky Mountains; Indiana; West Ohio/Michigan; East Ohio; Western New York; Eastern New York; and New England — and potential exposure to geographic regions outside of our branch footprint. The moderate U.S. economic recovery has been experienced unevenly in the various regions where we operate, and continued improvement in the overall U.S. economy may not result in similar improvement, or any improvement at all, in the economy of any particular geographic region. Adverse conditions in a geographic region such as inflation, unemployment, recession, natural disasters, or other factors beyond our control could impact the ability of borrowers in these regions to repay their loans, decrease the value of collateral securing loans made in these regions, or affect the ability of our customers in these regions to continue conducting business with us.

Additionally, a significant portion of our business activities are concentrated within the real estate, healthcare, and utilities market segments. The profitability of some of these market segments depends upon the health of the overall economy, seasonality, the impact of regulation, and other factors that are beyond our control and may be beyond the control of our customers in these market segments.

An economic downturn in one or more geographic regions where we conduct our business, or any significant or prolonged impact on the profitability of one or more of the market segments with which we conduct significant business activity, could adversely affect the demand for our products and services, the ability of our customers to repay loans, the value of the collateral securing loans, and the stability of our deposit funding sources.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties in the financial services industries, and we routinely execute transactions with such counterparties, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. Defaults by one or more financial services institutions have led to, and may cause, market-wide liquidity problems and losses. Many of our transactions with other financial institutions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of a counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be affected when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivatives exposure due us.

 

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VI.  Reputation Risk

Damage to our reputation could significantly harm our businesses.

Our ability to attract and retain customers, clients, investors, and highly-skilled management and employees is affected by our reputation. Public perception of the financial services industry has declined as a result of the Great Recession. We face increased public and regulatory scrutiny resulting from the financial crisis and economic downturn. Significant harm to our reputation can also arise from other sources, including employee misconduct, actual or perceived unethical behavior, litigation or regulatory outcomes, failing to deliver minimum or required standards of service and quality, compliance failures, disclosure of confidential information, significant or numerous failures, interruptions or breaches of our information systems, and the activities of our clients, customers and counterparties, including vendors. Actions by the financial services industry generally or by certain members or individuals in the industry may have a significant adverse effect on our reputation. We could also suffer significant reputational harm if we fail to properly identify and manage potential conflicts of interest. Management of potential conflicts of interests has become increasingly complex as we expand our business activities through more numerous transactions, obligations and interests with and among our clients. The actual or perceived failure to adequately address conflicts of interest could affect the willingness of clients to deal with us, which could adversely affect our businesses.

VII.  Strategic Risk

We may not realize the expected benefits of our strategic initiatives.

Our ability to compete depends on a number of factors, including among others our ability to develop and successfully execute our strategic plans and initiatives. Our strategic priorities include growing profitably and maintaining financial strength; effectively managing risk and reward; engaging a high-performing, talented, and diverse workforce; and embracing the changes required by our clients and the marketplace. Acquiring and expanding customer relationships, including by “cross-selling” additional or new products to them, is also very important to our business model and our ability to grow revenue and earnings. Our inability to execute on or achieve the anticipated outcomes of our strategic priorities may affect how the market perceives us and could impede our growth and profitability.

We operate in a highly competitive industry.

We face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of competitors, some of which are larger and may have more financial resources than us. Our competitors primarily include national and super-regional banks as well as smaller community banks within the various geographic regions in which we operate. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including, without limitation, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, investment management firms, investment banking firms, broker-dealers and other local, regional, national, and global financial services firms. In addition, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for nonbanks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks. Mergers and acquisitions have led to increased concentration in the banking industry, placing added competitive pressure on Key’s core banking products and services. We expect the competitive landscape of the financial services industry to become even more intensified as a result of legislative, regulatory, structural, and technological changes.

Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including: our ability to develop and execute strategic plans and initiatives; our ability to develop, maintain, and build long-term customer relationships based on quality service and competitive prices; our ability to develop competitive products and technologies demanded by our customers, while maintaining our high ethical standards and assets safe and sound; our ability to attract, retain, and develop a strong employee workforce; and industry and general economic trends. Increased

 

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competition in the financial services industry, and our failure to perform in any of these areas, could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability.

Maintaining or increasing our market share depends upon our ability to adapt our products and services to evolving industry standards and consumer preferences, while maintaining competitive prices.

The continuous, widespread adoption of new technologies, including internet services and mobile devices (including smartphones and tablets), requires us to evaluate our product and service offerings to ensure they remain competitive. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to adapt our products and services, as well as our distribution of them, to evolving industry standards and consumer preferences. New technologies have altered consumer behavior by allowing consumers to complete transactions such as paying bills or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. New products allow consumers to maintain funds in brokerage accounts or mutual funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and related income generated from those deposits.

The increasing pressure from our competitors, both bank and nonbank, to keep pace and adopt new technologies and products and services requires us to incur substantial expense. We may be unsuccessful in developing or introducing new products and services, modifying our existing products and services, adapting to changing consumer preferences and spending and saving habits, achieving market acceptance or regulatory approval, sufficiently developing or maintaining a loyal customer base or offering products and services at prices lower than the prices offered by our competitors. These risks may affect our ability to achieve growth in our market share and could reduce both our revenue streams from certain products and services and our revenues from our net interest income.

We may not be able to attract and retain skilled people.

Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract, retain, motivate, and develop key people. Competition for the best people in most of our business activities is ongoing and can be intense, and we may not be able to retain or hire the people we want or need to serve our customers. To attract and retain qualified employees, we must compensate these employees at market levels. Typically, those levels have caused employee compensation to be our greatest expense.

Various restrictions on compensation of certain executive officers were imposed under the Dodd-Frank Act and other legislation and regulations. In addition, our incentive compensation structure is subject to review by the Federal Reserve, who may identify deficiencies in the structure, causing us to make changes that may affect our ability to offer competitive compensation to these individuals. Our ability to attract and retain talented employees may be affected by these developments, or any new executive compensation limits and regulations.

Potential acquisitions or strategic partnerships may disrupt our business and dilute shareholder value.

On October 30, 2015, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger with First Niagara, pursuant to which First Niagara will merge with and into KeyCorp with KeyCorp continuing as the surviving company. Acquiring other banks, bank branches, or other businesses involves various risks commonly associated with acquisitions or partnerships, including exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target company; diversion of our management’s time and attention; significant integration risk with respect to employees, accounting systems, and technology platforms; our inability to realize anticipated revenue and cost benefits and synergies; increased regulatory scrutiny; and, the possible loss of key employees and customers of the target company. We regularly evaluate merger and acquisition and strategic partnership opportunities and conduct due diligence activities related to possible transactions. As a result, mergers or acquisitions involving cash, debt or equity securities, such as the First Niagara merger, may occur at any time. Acquisitions may involve the payment of a premium over book and market values. Therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share

 

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could occur in connection with any future transaction. Additionally, if an acquisition, including the First Niagara merger, or strategic partnership were to occur, we may fail to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, or other projected benefits.

We may not be able to complete the acquisition of First Niagara.

Before the transactions contemplated in the merger agreement with First Niagara can be completed, various approvals must be obtained from the bank regulatory and other governmental authorities. In deciding whether to grant antitrust or regulatory clearances, the relevant governmental entities will consider a variety of factors, including the regulatory standing of each of the parties and the effect of the merger on competition within their relevant jurisdiction. An adverse development in either party’s regulatory standing or other factors could result in an inability to obtain one or more of the required regulatory approvals or delay their receipt. The terms and conditions of the approvals that are granted may impose requirements, limitations or costs, or place restrictions on the conduct of the combined company’s business or require branch divestitures. The level of divestitures required by the relevant governmental entities might be unacceptable to the parties, or could delay the closing of the merger or diminish the anticipated benefits of the merger. If required by regulatory authorities, we will divest branches in certain areas in a manner sufficient to eliminate such regulatory authorities’ competitive concerns. Despite the parties’ commitments to use their reasonable best efforts to comply with conditions imposed by regulatory entities, under the terms of the merger agreement, KeyCorp and First Niagara will not be required to take actions that would be more-likely-than-not to have a material and adverse effect on KeyCorp and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, giving effect to the merger (measured on a scale relative to First Niagara and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole). There can be no assurance that regulators will not impose conditions, terms, obligations, or restrictions and that such conditions, terms, obligations, or restrictions will not have the effect of delaying the completion of the merger, imposing additional material costs on or materially limiting the revenues of the combined company following the merger or otherwise reduce the anticipated benefits of the merger if the merger were consummated successfully within the expected timeframe. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that any such conditions, terms, obligations, or restrictions will not result in the delay or abandonment of the merger. Additionally, the completion of the merger is conditioned on the absence of certain orders, injunctions, or decrees by any court or regulatory agency of competent jurisdiction that would prohibit or make illegal the completion of the merger.

In addition to the various regulatory approvals, the merger agreement is subject to a number of other conditions that must be fulfilled in order to complete the merger. Those conditions include, but are not limited to: approval of the merger agreement by First Niagara and KeyCorp shareholders, as well as approval of the amendment to KeyCorp’s articles by KeyCorp’s shareholders, absence of orders prohibiting completion of the merger, effectiveness of the registration statement filed in connection with the transaction, and approval of the KeyCorp common shares and the new KeyCorp preferred stock to be issued to First Niagara common and preferred stockholders, as applicable, for listing on the NYSE. The conditions to the closing of the merger may not be fulfilled in a timely manner or at all, and, accordingly, the merger may not be completed. In addition, the parties can mutually decide to terminate the merger agreement at any time, before or after shareholder approval, or KeyCorp or First Niagara may elect to terminate the merger agreement in certain other circumstances.

Several putative class action lawsuits have been filed by purported First Niagara stockholders alleging claims against First Niagara, the members of First Niagara’s Board of Directors, and KeyCorp. Among other remedies, the purported plaintiffs seek to enjoin the merger. The outcome of any such litigation is uncertain. If the cases or any additional cases filed in connection with the merger are not resolved, these lawsuits could prevent or delay the completion of the merger and result in significant costs to First Niagara and/or KeyCorp, including any costs associated with the indemnification of directors and officers.

We may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the merger with First Niagara.

KeyCorp and First Niagara have operated and, until the completion of the merger, will continue to operate, independently. The success of the merger, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend on, among

 

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other things, our ability to combine the businesses of KeyCorp and First Niagara in a manner that permits growth opportunities, including, among other things, enhanced revenues and revenue synergies, an expanded market reach and operating efficiencies, and that does not materially disrupt the existing customer relationships of KeyCorp or First Niagara nor result in decreased revenues due to loss of customers. If we are not able to successfully achieve these objectives, the anticipated benefits of the merger may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected. Failure to achieve these anticipated benefits could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy and could have an adverse effect on the surviving corporation’s business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects. In addition, it is possible that the integration process could result in the disruption of our ongoing businesses or cause inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the merger.

We will incur transaction and integration costs in connection with the First Niagara merger.

We have incurred and expect to incur significant, nonrecurring costs in connection with consummating the First Niagara merger. In addition, we will incur integration costs following the completion of the merger as we integrate our business and First Niagara’s business, including facilities and systems consolidation costs and employment-related costs. There can be no assurances that the expected benefits and efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses will be realized to offset these transaction and integration costs over time. We may also incur additional costs to maintain employee morale and to retain key employees. We will also incur significant legal, financial advisor, accounting, banking and consulting fees, fees relating to regulatory filings and notices, SEC filing fees, printing and mailing fees, and other costs associated with the merger. Some of these costs are payable regardless of whether the merger is completed.

VIII.  Model Risk

We rely on quantitative models to manage certain accounting, risk management and capital planning functions.

We use quantitative models to help manage certain aspects of our business and to assist with certain business decisions, including estimating probable loan losses, measuring the fair value of financial instruments when reliable market prices are unavailable, estimating the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, managing risk, and for capital planning purposes (including during the CCAR capital planning process). Our modeling methodologies rely on many assumptions, historical analyses and correlations. These assumptions may be incorrect, particularly in times of market distress, and the historical correlations on which we rely may no longer be relevant. Additionally, as businesses and markets evolve, our measurements may not accurately reflect this evolution. Even if the underlying assumptions and historical correlations used in our models are adequate, our models may be deficient due to errors in computer code, bad data, misuse of data, or the use of a model for a purpose outside the scope of the model’s design.

As a result, our models may not capture or fully express the risks we face, may suggest that we have sufficient capitalization when we do not, or may lead us to misjudge the business and economic environment in which we will operate. If our models fail to produce reliable results on an ongoing basis, we may not make appropriate risk management, capital planning, or other business or financial decisions. Furthermore, strategies that we employ to manage and govern the risks associated with our use of models may not be effective or fully reliable, and as a result, we may realize losses or other lapses.

Banking regulators continue to focus on the models used by banks and bank holding companies in their businesses. The failure or inadequacy of a model may result in increased regulatory scrutiny on us or may result in an enforcement action or proceeding against us by one of our regulators.

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

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ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES

The headquarters of KeyCorp and KeyBank are located in Key Tower at 127 Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1306. At December 31, 2015, Key leased approximately 477,781 square feet of the complex, encompassing the first 12 floors and the 54th through 56th floors of the 57-story Key Tower. In addition, Key owned two buildings in Brooklyn, Ohio, with office space that it operated from and leased out totaling approximately 563,466 square feet at December 31, 2015. As of the same date, KeyBank owned 434 branches and leased 532 branches. The lease terms for applicable branches are not individually material, with terms ranging from month-to-month to 99 years from inception.

Branches and ATMs by Region

 

      Pacific      Rocky
Mountains
     Indiana     

West Ohio/

Michigan

     East Ohio     

Western

New York

    

Eastern

New York

    

New

England

     Total  

Branches

     246         126         61         98         148         80         144         63         966   

ATMs

     290         158         68         121         251         110         180         78         1,256   

ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The information presented in the Legal Proceedings section of Note 20 (“Commitments, Contingent Liabilities and Guarantees”) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements is incorporated herein by reference.

On at least a quarterly basis, we assess our liabilities and contingencies in connection with outstanding legal proceedings utilizing the latest information available. Where it is probable that we will incur a loss and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated, we record a liability in our consolidated financial statements. These legal reserves may be increased or decreased to reflect any relevant developments on a quarterly basis. Where a loss is not probable or the amount of the loss is not estimable, we have not accrued legal reserves, consistent with applicable accounting guidance. Based on information currently available to us, advice of counsel, and available insurance coverage, we believe that our established reserves are adequate and the liabilities arising from the legal proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition. We note, however, that in light of the inherent uncertainty in legal proceedings there can be no assurance that the ultimate resolution will not exceed established reserves. As a result, the outcome of a particular matter or a combination of matters may be material to our results of operations for a particular period, depending upon the size of the loss or our income for that particular period.

ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

The dividend restrictions discussion in the “Supervision and Regulation” section in Item 1. Business of this report, and the disclosures included in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this report, are incorporated herein by reference:

 

     Page(s)  

Discussion of our common shares, shareholder information and repurchase activities in the section captioned “Capital — Common shares outstanding”

     71       

Presentation of annual and quarterly market price and cash dividends per common share and discussion of dividends in the section captioned “Capital — Dividends”

     36, 71, 100       

Discussion of dividend restrictions in the sections captioned “Supervision and Regulation — Regulatory capital and liquidity — Dividend restrictions” and “Liquidity risk management — Liquidity for KeyCorp,” Note 3 (“Restrictions on Cash, Dividends and Lending Activities”), and Note 22 (“Shareholders’ Equity”)

     14, 88, 136, 216       

KeyCorp common share price performance (2011-2015) graph

     72       

From time to time, KeyCorp or its principal subsidiary, KeyBank, may seek to retire, repurchase, or exchange outstanding debt of KeyCorp or KeyBank, and capital securities or preferred stock of KeyCorp, through cash purchase, privately negotiated transactions, or otherwise. Such transactions, if any, depend on prevailing market conditions, our liquidity and capital requirements, contractual restrictions, and other factors. The amounts involved may be material.

As authorized by our Board and pursuant to our 2015 capital plan submitted to and not objected to by the Federal Reserve, we have authority to repurchase up to $725 million of our common shares in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. Share repurchases under the 2015 capital plan began in the second quarter of 2015 and included repurchases to offset issuances of common shares under our employee compensation plans. Common share repurchases under our 2015 capital plan were suspended in the fourth quarter of 2015 due to the pending merger with First Niagara.

The following table summarizes our repurchases of our common shares for the three months ended December 31, 2015. Common shares deemed surrendered by employees in connection with our stock compensation and benefit plans comprise the entire amount of share repurchases as disclosed in the table.

 

Calendar month    Total number of shares
repurchased
    (a)    Average price paid
per share
     Total number of shares purchased as
part of publicly announced plans or
programs
     Maximum number of shares that may
yet be purchased as part of
publicly announced plans or
programs
    (b)

October 1 — 31

                                 2,720            $ 13.10                                                              —                                                      38,051,953     

November 1 — 30

     69                                     13.32           —           36,049,148     

December 1 — 31

     6,484               12.99           —           35,824,117     

Total

     9,273           $ 13.02           —          
  

 

 

              
    

 

 

                                  

 

(a) Includes common shares deemed surrendered by employees in connection with our stock compensation and benefit plans to satisfy tax obligations. There were no common shares repurchased in the open market during the fourth quarter of 2015.

 

(b) Calculated using the remaining general repurchase amount divided by the closing price of KeyCorp common shares as follows: on October 31, 2015, at $12.42; on November 30, 2015, at $13.11; and on December 31, 2015, at $13.19.

 

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ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The information included under the caption “Selected Financial Data” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations beginning on page 36 is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

     Page Number  

Introduction

     35                       

Terminology

     35                       

Selected financial data

     36                       

Economic overview

     37                       

Long-term financial goals

     38                       

Corporate strategy

     38                       

Strategic developments

     39                       

Highlights of Our 2015 Performance

     40                       

Financial performance

     40                       

Results of Operations

     44                       

Net interest income

     44                       

Noninterest income

     48                       

Noninterest expense

     51                       

Income taxes

     52                       

Line of Business Results

     53                       

Key Community Bank summary of operations

     53                       

Key Corporate Bank summary of operations

     55                       

Other Segments

     57                       

Financial Condition

     58                       

Loans and loans held for sale

     58                       

Securities

     67                       

Other investments

     69                       

Deposits and other sources of funds

     70                       

Capital

     70                       

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Aggregate Contractual Obligations

     76                       

Off-balance sheet arrangements

     76                       

Contractual obligations

     77                       

Guarantees

     78                       

Risk Management

     78                       

Overview

     78                       

Market risk management

     79                       

Liquidity risk management

     85                       

Credit risk management

     89                       

Operational and compliance risk management

     97                       

Fourth Quarter Results

     98                       

Earnings

     98                       

Net interest income

     98                       

Noninterest income

     98                       

Noninterest expense

     99                       

Provision for loan and lease losses

     99                       

Income taxes

     99                       

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

     103                       

Allowance for loan and lease losses

     103                       

Valuation methodologies

     104                       

Derivatives and hedging

     106                       

Contingent liabilities, guarantees and income taxes

     106                       

European Sovereign and Non-Sovereign Debt Exposure

     108                       

Throughout the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (the “MD&A”), we use certain acronyms and abbreviations. These terms are defined in Note 1 (“Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”), which begins on page 119.

 

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Introduction

This section reviews the financial condition and results of operations of KeyCorp and its subsidiaries for each of the past three years. Some tables include additional periods to comply with disclosure requirements or to illustrate trends in greater depth. When you read this discussion, you should also refer to the consolidated financial statements and related notes in this report. The page locations of specific sections that we refer to are presented in the table of contents.

Terminology

Throughout this discussion, references to “Key,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and similar terms refer to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyCorp and its subsidiaries. “KeyCorp” refers solely to the parent holding company, and “KeyBank” refers solely to KeyCorp’s subsidiary bank, KeyBank National Association. KeyBank (consolidated) refers to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyBank and its subsidiaries.

We want to explain some industry-specific terms at the outset so you can better understand the discussion that follows.

 

¿ We use the phrase continuing operations in this document to mean all of our businesses other than the education lending business, Victory, and Austin. The education lending business and Austin have been accounted for as discontinued operations since 2009. Victory was classified as a discontinued operation in our first quarter 2013 financial reporting as a result of the sale of this business as announced on February 21, 2013, and closed on July 31, 2013.

 

¿ Our exit loan portfolios are separate from our discontinued operations. These portfolios, which are in a run-off mode, stem from product lines we decided to cease because they no longer fit with our corporate strategy. These exit loan portfolios are included in Other Segments.

 

¿ We engage in capital markets activities primarily through business conducted by our Key Corporate Bank segment. These activities encompass a variety of products and services. Among other things, we trade securities as a dealer, enter into derivative contracts (both to accommodate clients’ financing needs and to mitigate certain risks), and conduct transactions in foreign currencies (both to accommodate clients’ needs and to benefit from fluctuations in exchange rates).

 

¿ For regulatory purposes, capital is divided into two classes. Federal regulations currently prescribe that at least one-half of a bank or BHC’s total risk-based capital must qualify as Tier 1 capital. Both total and Tier 1 capital serve as bases for several measures of capital adequacy, which is an important indicator of financial stability and condition. As described under the heading “Regulatory capital and liquidity — Capital planning and stress testing” in the section entitled “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report, the regulators are required to conduct a supervisory capital assessment of all BHCs with assets of at least $50 billion, including KeyCorp. As part of this capital adequacy review, banking regulators evaluated a component of Tier 1 capital, known as Tier 1 common equity, using the definitions of Tier 1 capital and total risk-weighted assets that were in effect in 2014, as well as a transition plan for full implementation of the Regulatory Capital Rules. The section entitled “Capital — Capital adequacy” in this MD&A provides more information on total capital, Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 common equity, and the Regulatory Capital Rules, including Common Equity Tier 1, and describes how the three measures are calculated.

Additionally, a comprehensive list of the acronyms and abbreviations used throughout this discussion is included in Note 1 (“Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”).

 

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Figure 1. Selected Financial Data

 

dollars in millions, except per share amounts   2015     2014     2013     2012     2011    

Compound
Annual
Rate
of Change

(2011-2015)

 

YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,

           

Interest income

  $ 2,622      $ 2,554      $ 2,620      $ 2,705      $ 2,889        (1.9 )% 

Interest expense

    274        261        295        441        622        (15.1

Net interest income

    2,348        2,293        2,325        2,264        2,267        .7   

Provision for credit losses

    166        57        138        213        (88     N/M   

Noninterest income

    1,880        1,797        1,766        1,856        1,688        2.2   

Noninterest expense

    2,840        2,761        2,812        2,834        2,712        .9   

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes

    1,222        1,272        1,141        1,073        1,331        (1.7

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key

    915        939        870        835        955        (.9

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

    1        (39     40        23        (35     N/M   

Net income (loss) attributable to Key

    916        900        910        858        920        (.1

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders

    892        917        847        813        848        1.0   

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

    1        (39     40        23        (35     N/M   

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders

    893        878        887        836        813        1.9   

PER COMMON SHARE

           

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders

  $ 1.06      $ 1.05      $ .93      $ .87      $ .91        3.1

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

    —          (.04     .04        .02        (.04     N/M   

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders (b)

    1.06        1.01        .98        .89        .87        4.0   

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders — assuming dilution

  $ 1.05      $ 1.04      $ .93      $ .86      $ .91        2.9

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes — assuming dilution (a)

    —          (.04     .04        .02        (.04     N/M   

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders — assuming dilution (b)

    1.05        .99        .97        .89        .87        3.8   

Cash dividends paid

    .29        .25        .215        .18        .10        23.7

Book value at year end

    12.51        11.91        11.25        10.78        10.09        4.4   

Tangible book value at year end

    11.22        10.65        10.11        9.67        9.11        4.3   

Market price at year end

    13.19        13.90        13.42        8.42        7.69        11.4   

Dividend payout ratio

    27.4     24.8     21.9     20.2     11.49     N/A   

Weighted-average common shares outstanding (000)

    836,846        871,464        906,524        938,941        931,934        (2.1

Weighted-average common shares and potential common shares outstanding (000) (c)

    844,489        878,199        912,571        943,259        935,801        (2.0

AT DECEMBER 31.

           

Loans

  $ 59,876      $ 57,381      $ 54,457      $ 52,822      $ 49,575        3.8

Earning assets

    83,780        82,269        79,467        75,055        73,729        2.6   

Total assets

    95,133        93,821        92,934        89,236        88,785        1.4   

Deposits

    71,046        71,998        69,262        65,993        61,956        2.8   

Long-term debt

    10,186        7,875        7,650        6,847        9,520        1.4   

Key common shareholders’ equity

    10,456        10,239        10,012        9,980        9,614        1.7   

Key shareholders’ equity

    10,746        10,530        10,303        10,271        9,905        1.6   

PERFORMANCE RATIOS — FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS

           

Return on average total assets

    .99     1.08     1.03     1.03     1.16     N/A   

Return on average common equity

    8.63        9.01        8.48        8.25        9.17        N/A   

Return on average tangible common equity (d)

    9.64        10.04        9.45        9.16        10.20        N/A   

Net interest margin (TE)

    2.88        2.97        3.12        3.21        3.16        N/A   

Cash efficiency ratio (d)

    65.9        66.2        67.3        67.8        68.0        N/A   

PERFORMANCE RATIOS — FROM CONSOLIDATED OPERATIONS

           

Return on average total assets

    .97     .99     1.02     .99     1.04     N/A   

Return on average common equity

    8.64        8.63        8.88        8.48        8.79        N/A   

Return on average tangible common equity (d)

    9.65        9.61        9.90        9.42        9.78        N/A   

Net interest margin (TE)

    2.85        2.94        3.02        3.13        3.09        N/A   

Loan to deposit (e)

    87.8        84.6        83.8        85.8        87.0        N/A   

CAPITAL RATIOS AT DECEMBER 31,

           

Key shareholders’ equity to assets

    11.30     11.22     11.09     11.51     11.16     N/A   

Key common shareholders’ equity to assets

    10.99        10.91        10.78        11.18        10.83        N/A   

Tangible common equity to tangible assets (d)

    9.98        9.88        9.80        10.15        9.88        N/A   

Common Equity Tier 1 (d)

    10.94        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A   

Tier 1 common equity (d)

    N/A        11.17        11.22        11.36        11.26        N/A   

Tier 1 risk-based capital

    11.35        11.90        11.96        12.15        12.99        N/A   

Total risk-based capital

    12.97        13.89        14.33        15.13        16.51        N/A   

Leverage

    10.72        11.26        11.11        11.41        11.79        N/A   

TRUST AND BROKERAGE ASSETS

           

Assets under management

  $ 33,983      $ 39,157      $ 36,905      $ 34,744      $ 34,255        N/A   

Nonmanaged and brokerage assets

    47,681        49,147        47,418        35,550        30,639        N/A   

OTHER DATA

           

Average full-time-equivalent employees

    13,483        13,853        14,783        15,589        15,381        (2.6 )% 

Branches

    966        994        1,028        1,088        1,058        (1.8

 

(a) In April 2009, we decided to wind down the operations of Austin, a subsidiary that specialized in managing hedge fund investments for institutional customers. In September 2009, we decided to discontinue the education lending business conducted through Key Education Resources, the education payment and financing unit of KeyBank. In February 2013, we decided to sell Victory to a private equity fund. As a result of these decisions, we have accounted for these businesses as discontinued operations. For further discussion regarding the income (loss) from discontinued operations, see Note 13 (“Acquisitions and Discontinued Operations”).

 

(b) EPS may not foot due to rounding.

 

(c) Assumes conversion of common share options and other stock awards and/or convertible preferred stock, as applicable.

 

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(d) See Figure 4 entitled “GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliations,” which presents the computations of certain financial measures related to “tangible common equity,” “Common Equity Tier 1” (compliance date of January 1, 2015, under the Regulatory Capital Rules), “Tier 1 common equity” (prior to January 1, 2015), and “cash efficiency.” The table reconciles the GAAP performance measures to the corresponding non-GAAP measures, which provides a basis for period-to-period comparisons.

 

(e) Represents period-end consolidated total loans and loans held for sale (excluding education loans in securitizations trusts for periods prior to 2014) divided by period-end consolidated total deposits (excluding deposits in foreign office).

Economic overview

The economy continued its modest recovery in 2015, with overall GDP of 2.4% unchanged from the prior year. 2015 was a volatile year, with the first quarter starting at a slow pace, then growth picking up over the next six months before decelerating again in the fourth quarter. Throughout 2015, slowing emerging market growth, a strengthening U.S. dollar, and falling demand for U.S. exports were all significant factors that held back growth. Additionally, oil prices dropped 32% over the year, giving consumers a boost in discretionary income but resulting in a sharp decline in energy-related investments. The stock market disappointed in 2015, with the S&P 500 equity index dropping 1%, compared to an 11% increase in 2014, largely due to uncertainty around Chinese equity markets and oil and commodity prices. Globally, the economic recovery slowed; the European Central Bank maintained an easy money policy as their recovery stalled and the risk of deflation rose, while emerging markets struggled in the face of low commodity prices and a weakening Chinese economy.

For 2015, 2.7 million new jobs were added in the U.S. The unemployment rate fell further, from 5.6% at December 31, 2014, to 5.0% at December 31, 2015. While weak labor force participation was a factor, solid employment gains also drove the decline. Slack remains, however, reflected in underwhelming wage growth for much of the year. Consumers preferred to solidify their balance sheets in 2015, as the savings rate rose to 5.5% in December 2015 while consumer spending, although still solid, declined to 2.6%. By December 2015, headline inflation remained at .7%, mainly due to a further decline in energy prices. Core inflation also remained low throughout the year, ending 2015 at 2.1%, up from 1.6% at the end of 2014.

As the economy expanded further and the labor market continued to strengthen, the housing market gained traction, with slight improvement across nearly all metrics in 2015. While household formation is normalizing, a declining home ownership rate continues to weigh on sales growth. Existing home sales finished 2015 at a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 5.46 million, up 7.7% from December 2014. New home sales ended the year on a solid note, reaching a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 544,000 in December 2015, up 9.9% from 2014. Price appreciation picked up modestly, with the median price for existing homes up 6.3% year-over-year in December 2015, compared to 4.6% in 2014. Housing starts accelerated further, up 6.4% from December 2014, driven by gains in both single and multi-family construction of 6.1% and 7.0%, respectively.

The Federal Reserve remained active and accommodative for most of 2015. The Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”) decided to maintain the existing policy of reinvesting principal payments to help accommodate financial conditions throughout the year. In addition, the FOMC kept the federal funds target rate near zero until December 2015, lifting the target rate by 25 basis points, citing an improving labor market and the expectation that inflation would return to its 2% objective over the medium term. The 10-year U.S. Treasury yield began the year at 2.2%, and dipped to as low as 1.7% for the first quarter of 2015, driven by disappointing weather-related economic data. In the third quarter of 2015, with rising speculation around higher interest rates, the 10-year U.S. Treasury yield began to increase, reaching 2.4%, and ended the year at 2.3%, as interest rates eased (even after the FOMC raised rates) due to concerns of slower global growth, lower energy prices, and equity market volatility.

 

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Long-term financial goals

Our long-term financial goals are as follows:

 

¿ Improve balance sheet efficiency by targeting a loan-to-deposit ratio range of 90% to 100%;

 

¿ Maintain a moderate risk profile by targeting a net loan charge-offs to average loans ratio and provision for credit losses to average loans ratio in the range of .40% to .60%;

 

¿ Grow high quality and diverse revenue streams by targeting a net interest margin in the range of 3.00% to 3.25% and a ratio of noninterest income to total revenue of greater than 40%;

 

¿ Generate positive operating leverage and target a cash efficiency ratio of less than 60%; and

 

¿ Maintain disciplined capital management and target a return on average assets in the range of 1.00% to 1.25%.

Figure 2 shows the evaluation of our long-term financial goals for the three months and year ended December 31, 2015.

Figure 2. Evaluation of Our Long-Term Financial Goals

 

KEY Business Model

  Key Metrics (a)     4Q15       

 

Year ended

December 31, 2015

  

  

    Targets   

Balance sheet efficiency

  Loan-to-deposit ratio (b)     88 %        88 %        90 - 100 %   

Moderate risk profile

  Net loan charge-offs to average loans     .25 %        .24 %        .40 - .60 %   
  Provision for credit losses to average loans     .30 %        .28 %     

High quality, diverse

revenue streams

  Net interest margin     2.87 %        2.88 %        3.00 - 3.25 %   
  Noninterest income to total revenue     44 %        44 %        > 40 %   

Positive operating leverage

  Cash efficiency ratio (c)     66.4 %        65.9 %        < 60 %   

Financial Returns

  Return on average assets     .97 %        .99 %        1.00 - 1.25 %   

 

(a) Calculated from continuing operations, unless otherwise noted.

 

(b) Represents period-end consolidated total loans and loans held for sale divided by period-end consolidated total deposits (excluding deposits in foreign office).

 

(c) Excludes intangible asset amortization; non-GAAP measure: see Figure 4 for reconciliation.

Corporate strategy

We remain committed to enhancing long-term shareholder value by continuing to execute our relationship business model, growing our franchise, and being disciplined in our management of capital. Our 2015-2016 strategic focus is to grow by building enduring relationships through client-focused solutions and service. We intend to pursue this strategy by growing profitably; acquiring and expanding targeted client relationships; effectively managing risk and rewards; maintaining financial strength; and engaging, retaining, and inspiring our diverse and high-performing workforce. These strategic priorities for enhancing long-term shareholder value are described in more detail below.

 

¿ Grow profitably — We will continue to focus on generating positive operating leverage by growing revenue and creating a more efficient operating environment. We expect our relationship business model to keep generating organic growth as it helps us expand engagement with existing clients and attract new customers. We will leverage our continuous improvement culture to create a more efficient cost structure that is aligned, sustainable, and consistent with the current operating environment and supports our relationship business model.

 

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¿ Acquire and expand targeted client relationships — We have taken purposeful steps to enhance our ability to acquire and expand targeted relationships. Our local delivery of a broad product set and industry expertise allows us to match client needs and market conditions to deliver the best solutions.

 

¿ Effectively manage risk and rewards — Our risk management activities are focused on ensuring we properly identify, measure, and manage risks across the entire company to maintain safety and soundness and maximize profitability.

 

¿ Maintain financial strength — With the foundation of a strong balance sheet, we will remain focused on sustaining strong reserves, liquidity and capital. We will work closely with our Board and regulators to manage capital to support our clients’ needs and drive long-term shareholder value. Our capital remains a competitive advantage for us.

 

¿ Engage a high-performing, talented, and diverse workforce — Every day our employees provide our clients with great ideas, extraordinary service, and smart solutions. We will continue to engage our high-performing, talented, and diverse workforce to create an environment where they can make a difference, own their careers, be respected, and feel a sense of pride.

Strategic developments

We initiated the following actions during 2015 to support our corporate strategy:

 

¿ We continue to focus on growing our businesses and remain committed to improving productivity and efficiency. During 2015, we generated positive operating leverage, with pre-provision net revenue up 4.7% from 2014. Net interest income benefited from solid loan growth, driven by a 12% increase in average commercial, financial and agricultural loans. Noninterest income benefited from increases in several of our core fee-based businesses: investment banking and debt placement fees, which had record high fees in 2015 due to stronger financial advisory fees and loan syndications, trust and investment services income, corporate services income, and cards and payments income. Although noninterest expense increased from prior year, this increase was primarily due to the ongoing investments we have made in our businesses to drive revenue growth, including the addition of client-facing personnel across our franchise.

 

¿ Our strong risk management practices and a more favorable credit environment resulted in another year of solid credit quality trends. For 2015, net loan charge-offs were .24% of average loans and the provision for credit losses was .28% of average loans, both well below our targeted range.

 

¿ We also made progress on other strategic initiatives. On October 30, 2015, we announced that KeyCorp entered into a definitive agreement and plan of merger to acquire all of the outstanding capital stock of First Niagara. The merger is currently expected to be completed during the third quarter of 2016 and is subject to customary closing conditions including the approval of regulators and the shareholders of both KeyCorp and First Niagara. This merger is expected to accelerate our transformation into a high-performing regional bank, generate attractive financial returns, provide significant revenue opportunities, and create a complementary business mix and a more balanced franchise.

 

¿ Capital management remained a priority in 2015. On March 11, 2015, the Federal Reserve announced that it did not object to our 2015 capital plan submitted as part of the annual CCAR process. The 2015 capital plan included a common share repurchase program of up to $725 million, including repurchases to offset issuances of common shares under our employee compensation plans. Common share repurchases under the 2015 capital plan began in the second quarter of 2015. During the second and third quarters of 2015, we completed $252 million of common share repurchases under this authorization. In addition, we completed $208 million of common share repurchases in the first quarter of 2015 under our 2014 capital plan for a total of $460 million of open market common share repurchases during 2015. We suspended our existing share repurchase program in the fourth quarter of 2015 due to the pending merger with First Niagara. We plan to include share repurchases in the upcoming 2016 CCAR submission.

 

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¿ The Board declared a quarterly dividend of $.065 per common share for the first quarter of 2015. Our 2015 capital plan proposed a 15% increase in our quarterly common share dividend to $.075 per share, which was approved by our Board in May 2015. Consistent with our 2015 capital plan, we made a dividend payment of $.075 per common share for each of the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2015, which brought our annual dividend to $.29 per common share for 2015. The Board will consider an additional potential increase in our quarterly common share dividend, up to $.085 per share, in 2016 for the fifth quarter of the 2015 capital plan.

Highlights of Our 2015 Performance

Financial performance

For 2015, we announced net income from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders of $892 million, or $1.05 per common share. These results compare to net income from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders of $917 million, or $1.04 per common share, for 2014.

Figure 3 shows our continuing and discontinued operating results for the past three years.

Figure 3. Results of Operations

 

Year ended December 31,

        

in millions, except per share amounts

     2015           2014           2013     

SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS

        

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key

       $         915             $         939             $         870     

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

     1           (39)           40     

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Key

       $ 916             $ 900             $ 910     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key

       $ 915             $ 939             $ 870     

Less:        Dividends on Series A Preferred Stock

     23           22           23     

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders

     892           917           847     

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

     1           (39)           40     

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders

       $ 893             $ 878             $ 887     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

PER COMMON SHARE — ASSUMING DILUTION

        

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders

       $ 1.05             $ 1.04             $ .93     

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (a)

     —           (.04)           .04     

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders (b)

       $ 1.05             $ .99             $ .97     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
                            

 

(a) In April 2009, we decided to wind down the operations of Austin, a subsidiary that specialized in managing hedge fund investments for institutional customers. In September 2009, we decided to discontinue the education lending business conducted through Key Education Resources, the education payment and financing unit of KeyBank. In February 2013, we decided to sell Victory to a private equity fund. As a result of these decisions, we have accounted for these businesses as discontinued operations. For further discussion regarding the income (loss) from discontinued operations, see Note 13 (“Acquisitions and Discontinued Operations”).

 

(b) EPS may not foot due to rounding.

Our 2016 expectations, as disclosed below, do not include the effect of the pending First Niagara merger, which is expected to be completed in the third quarter of 2016.

Our 2015 full-year results reflect success in executing our strategy by generating positive operating leverage and maintaining strong risk management and disciplined capital management.

Our taxable-equivalent net interest income for 2015 was $2.376 billion, and the net interest margin was 2.88%. These results compare to taxable-equivalent net interest income of $2.317 billion and a net interest margin of 2.97% for the prior year. The increase in net interest income reflects higher earning asset balances, partially offset by lower earning asset yields, which also drove the decline in the net interest margin. In 2016, we expect low-single-digit (less than 5%) growth in net interest income without the benefit of higher interest rates or mid-single-digit (4% to 6%) growth with the benefit of higher interest rates compared to the prior year.

 

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Our noninterest income was $1.9 billion, up $83 million, or 4.6%, from 2014. Investment banking and debt placement fees benefited from our business model and had a record high year, increasing $48 million from 2014. Trust and investment services income increased $30 million, primarily due to the full-year 2015 impact of the September 2014 acquisition of Pacific Crest Securities. Noninterest income for 2015 also included increases of $20 million in corporate services income due to higher loan commitment fees and $17 million in cards and payments income due to higher merchant services, purchase card, and ATM debit card fees driven by increased volume. Other income also increased $10 million. These increases were partially offset by declines of $27 million in net gains from principal investing and $23 million in operating lease income and other leasing gains. In 2016, we expect mid-single-digit (4% to 6%) growth in noninterest income compared to 2015.

Our noninterest expense was $2.8 billion, an increase of $79 million, or 2.9%, from 2014. We recognized $61 million of merger-, efficiency-, and pension-related charges in 2015 compared to $80 million of efficiency- and pension-related charges in 2014. Personnel expense increased $61 million, driven by higher incentive and stock-based compensation, employee benefits, and salaries, partially offset by lower technology contract labor and severance. Nonpersonnel expense increased $18 million, primarily due to increases in marketing of $8 million and computer processing of $6 million. In 2016, we expect noninterest expense to be relatively stable (plus or minus 2%) with 2015.

Average loans totaled $58.6 billion for 2015, compared to $55.7 billion in 2014. Commercial, financial and agricultural loan growth of $3.3 billion was broad-based across our commercial lines of business. Consumer loans were slightly down, as modest increases across our core consumer loan portfolio, primarily direct term loans and credit cards, were offset by run-off in our designated consumer exit portfolio. For 2016, we anticipate average loan growth in the mid-single-digit (4% to 6%) range.

Average deposits, excluding deposits in foreign office, totaled $70.1 billion for 2015, an increase of $2.9 billion compared to 2014. NOW and money market deposit accounts and demand deposits increased $2 billion and $1.9 billion, respectively, reflecting growth in the commercial mortgage servicing business and inflows from commercial and consumer clients. These increases were partially offset by run-off in certificates of deposit and other time deposits. Our consolidated loan to deposit ratio was 87.8% at December 31, 2015, compared to 84.6% at December 31, 2014.

We maintained credit discipline in 2015, and our asset quality ratios remained strong. The provision for credit losses was $166 million for 2015 compared to $57 million for 2014. The increase in our provision is due to the growth in our loan portfolio over the past twelve months as well as lower recoveries in 2015 compared to 2014. Net loan charge-offs were $142 million, or .24%, of average loan balances for 2015, compared to $113 million, or .20%, for 2014. Our nonperforming loans declined to $387 million, or .65%, of period-end loans at December 31, 2015, compared to $418 million, or .73%, at December 31, 2014. Our ALLL was $796 million, or 1.33% of period-end loans, compared to $794 million, or 1.38%, at December 31, 2014, and represented 206% and 190% coverage of nonperforming loans at December 31, 2015, and December 31, 2014, respectively. In 2016, we expect net loan charge-offs to average loans to remain below our long-term targeted range of 40 to 60 basis points and the ALLL, as a percentage of period-end loans, to remain relatively stable (plus or minus 2%, which would approximate a three basis point change) with 2015.

Our capital ratios remain strong. Our tangible common equity and Tier 1 risk-based capital ratios were 9.98% and 11.35%, respectively, at December 31, 2015, compared to 9.88% and 11.90%, respectively, at December 31, 2014. In addition, our Common Equity Tier 1 was 10.94% at December 31, 2015. We have identified four primary uses of capital:

 

  1. Investing in our businesses, supporting our clients, and loan growth;

 

  2. Maintaining or increasing our common share dividend;

 

  3. Returning capital in the form of common share repurchases to our shareholders; and

 

  4. Remaining disciplined and opportunistic about how we invest in our franchise to include selective acquisitions over time.

 

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Our capital management remains focused on creating value. During 2015, our full-year dividend per common share increased 16% from the prior year, and we repurchased $460 million of common shares.

Figure 4 presents certain non-GAAP financial measures related to “tangible common equity,” “return on tangible common equity,” “Common Equity Tier 1,” “Tier 1 common equity,” “pre-provision net revenue,” “cash efficiency ratio,” and “Common Equity Tier 1 under the Regulatory Capital Rules (estimates).”

The tangible common equity ratio and the return on tangible common equity ratio have been a focus for some investors, and management believes these ratios may assist investors in analyzing Key’s capital position without regard to the effects of intangible assets and preferred stock. Traditionally, the banking regulators have assessed bank and BHC capital adequacy based on both the amount and the composition of capital, the calculation of which is prescribed in federal banking regulations. The Federal Reserve focuses its assessment of capital adequacy on a component of Tier 1 capital known as Common Equity Tier 1. Because the Federal Reserve has long indicated that voting common shareholders’ equity (essentially Tier 1 risk-based capital less preferred stock, qualifying capital securities and noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries) generally should be the dominant element in Tier 1 risk-based capital, this focus on Common Equity Tier 1 is consistent with existing capital adequacy categories. The Regulatory Capital Rules, described in more detail under the section “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report, also make Common Equity Tier 1 a priority. The Regulatory Capital Rules change the regulatory capital standards that apply to BHCs by, among other changes, phasing out the treatment of trust preferred securities and cumulative preferred securities as Tier 1 eligible capital. Starting in 2016, our trust preferred securities will only be included in Tier 2 capital. Since analysts and banking regulators may assess our capital adequacy using tangible common equity and Common Equity Tier 1, we believe it is useful to enable investors to assess our capital adequacy on these same bases. Figure 4 also reconciles the GAAP performance measures to the corresponding non-GAAP measures.

Figure 4 also shows the computation for and reconciliation of pre-provision net revenue, which is not formally defined by GAAP. We believe that eliminating the effects of the provision for credit losses makes it easier to analyze our results by presenting them on a more comparable basis.

The cash efficiency ratio is a ratio of two non-GAAP performance measures. Accordingly, there is no directly comparable GAAP performance measure. The cash efficiency ratio excludes the impact of our intangible asset amortization from the calculation. We believe this ratio provides greater consistency and comparability between our results and those of our peer banks. Additionally, this ratio is used by analysts and investors as they develop earnings forecasts and peer bank analysis.

Non-GAAP financial measures have inherent limitations, are not required to be uniformly applied, and are not audited. Although these non-GAAP financial measures are frequently used by investors to evaluate a company, they have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for analyses of results as reported under GAAP.

 

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Figure 4. GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliations

Year ended December 31,

 

dollars in millions   2015            2014            2013            2012            2011        
                                                                                          

Tangible common equity to tangible assets at period end

                       

Key shareholders’ equity (GAAP)

  $ 10,746         $ 10,530         $ 10,303         $ 10,271         $ 9,905     

Less:

  

Intangible assets (a)

    1,080           1,090           1,014           1,027           934     
  

Series B Preferred Stock

    —             —             —             —             —       
  

Series A Preferred Stock (b)

    281           282           282           291           291     
                                                                                          
  

Tangible common equity (non-GAAP)

  $ 9,385         $ 9,158         $ 9,007         $ 8,953         $ 8,680     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Total assets (GAAP)

  $ 95,133         $ 93,821         $ 92,934         $ 89,236         $ 88,785     

Less:

  

Intangible assets (a)

    1,080           1,090           1,014           1,027           934     
                                                                                          
  

Tangible assets (non-GAAP)

  $ 94,053         $ 92,731         $ 91,920         $ 88,209         $ 87,851     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio (non-GAAP)

    9.98        %         9.88        %         9.80        %         10.15        %         9.88        %   

Common Equity Tier 1 at period end

                       

Key shareholders’ equity (GAAP)

  $ 10,746           —             —             —             —       

Less:

  

Series A Preferred Stock (b)

    281           —             —             —             —       
                                                                                          
  

Common Equity Tier 1 capital before adjustments and deductions

    10,465           —             —             —             —       

Less:

  

Goodwill, net of deferred taxes

    1,034           —             —             —             —       
  

Intangible assets, net of deferred taxes

    26           —             —             —             —       
  

Deferred tax assets

    1           —             —             —             —       
  

Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities, net of deferred taxes

    (58        —             —             —             —       
  

Accumulated gains (losses) on cash flow hedges, net of deferred taxes

    (20        —             —             —             —       
  

Amounts in AOCI attributed to pension and postretirement benefit costs, net of deferred taxes

    (365        —             —             —             —       
                                                                                          
  

Total Common Equity Tier 1 capital

  $ 9,847                         
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Net risk-weighted assets (regulatory)

  $ 89,980           —             —             —             —       

Common Equity Tier 1 ratio (non-GAAP)

    10.94        %         —             —             —             —       

Tier 1 common equity at period end

                       

Key shareholders’ equity (GAAP)

    —           $ 10,530         $ 10,303         $ 10,271         $ 9,905     

Qualifying capital securities

    —             339           339           339           1,046     

Less:

  

Goodwill

    —             1,057           979           979           917     
  

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (c)

    —             (395        (394        (172        (72  
  

Other assets (d)

    —             83           89           114           72     
                                                                                          
  

Total Tier 1 capital (regulatory)

    —             10,124           9,968           9,689           10,034     

Less:

  

Qualifying capital securities

    —             339           339           339           1,046     
  

Series A Preferred Stock (b)

    —             282           282           291           291     
                                                                                          
  

Total Tier 1 common equity (non-GAAP)

    —           $ 9,503         $ 9,347         $ 9,059         $ 8,697     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Net risk-weighted assets (regulatory)

    —           $ 85,100         $ 83,328         $ 79,734         $ 77,214     

Tier 1 common equity ratio (non-GAAP)

    —             11.17        %         11.22        %         11.36        %         11.26        %   

Pre-provision net revenue

                       

Net interest income (GAAP)

  $ 2,348         $ 2,293         $ 2,325         $ 2,264         $ 2,267     

Plus:

  

Taxable-equivalent adjustment

    28           24           23           24           25     
  

Noninterest income (GAAP)

    1,880           1,797           1,766           1,856           1,688     

Less:

  

Noninterest expense (GAAP)

    2,840           2,761           2,812           2,834           2,712     
                                                                                          

Pre-provision net revenue from continuing operations (non-GAAP)

  $ 1,416         $ 1,353         $ 1,302         $ 1,310         $ 1,268     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Average tangible common equity

                       

Average Key shareholders’ equity (GAAP)

  $ 10,626         $ 10,467         $ 10,276         $ 10,144         $ 10,133     

Less:

  

Intangible assets (average) (e)

    1,085           1,039           1,021           978           935     
  

Series B Preferred Stock (average)

    —             —             —             —             590     
  

Series A Preferred Stock (average)

    290           291           291           291           291     
                                                                                          
  

Average tangible common equity (non-GAAP)

  $ 9,251         $ 9,137         $ 8,964         $ 8,875         $ 8,317     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Return on average tangible common equity from continuing operations

                       

Net income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Key common shareholders (GAAP)

  $ 892         $ 917         $ 847         $ 813         $ 848     

Average tangible common equity (non-GAAP)

    9,251           9,137           8,964           8,875           8,317     

Return on average tangible common equity from continuing operations (non-GAAP)

    9.64        %         10.04        %         9.45        %         9.16        %         10.20        %   

Return on average tangible common equity consolidated

                       

Net income (loss) attributable to Key common shareholders (GAAP)

  $ 893         $ 878         $ 887         $ 836         $ 813     

Average tangible common equity (non-GAAP)

    9,251           9,137           8,964           8,875           8,317     

Return on average tangible common equity consolidated (non-GAAP)

    9.65        %         9.61        %         9.90        %         9.42        %         9.78        %   

Cash efficiency ratio

                       

Noninterest expense (GAAP)

  $ 2,840         $ 2,761         $ 2,812         $ 2,834         $ 2,712     

Less:

  

Intangible asset amortization (GAAP)

    36           39           44           23           4     
                                                                                          
  

Adjusted noninterest expense (non-GAAP)

  $     2,804         $     2,722         $     2,768         $     2,811         $     2,708     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Net interest income (GAAP)

  $ 2,348         $ 2,293         $ 2,325         $ 2,264         $ 2,267     

Plus:

  

Taxable-equivalent adjustment

    28           24           23           24           25     
  

Noninterest income (GAAP)

    1,880           1,797           1,766           1,856           1,688     
                                                                                          
  

Total taxable-equivalent revenue (non-GAAP)

  $ 4,256         $ 4,114         $ 4,114         $ 4,144         $ 3,980     
    

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

   

Cash efficiency ratio (non-GAAP)

    65.9        %         66.2        %         67.3        %         67.8        %         68.0        %   
                                                                                          

 

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(a) For the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014, December 31, 2013, and December 31, 2012, intangible assets exclude $45 million, $68 million, $92 million, and $123 million, respectively, of period-end purchased credit card receivables.

 

(b) Net of capital surplus for the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014, and December 31, 2013.

 

(c) Includes net unrealized gains or losses on securities available for sale (except for net unrealized losses on marketable equity securities), net gains or losses on cash flow hedges, and amounts resulting from the application of the applicable accounting guidance for defined benefit and other postretirement plans.

 

(d) Other assets deducted from Tier 1 capital and net risk-weighted assets consist of disallowed intangible assets (excluding goodwill) and deductible portions of nonfinancial equity investments. There were no disallowed deferred tax assets at December 31, 2014, December 31, 2013, December 31, 2012, and December 31, 2011.

 

(e) For the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014, December 31, 2013, and December 31, 2012, average intangible assets exclude $55 million, $79 million, $107 million, and $55 million, respectively, of average purchased credit card receivables.

Figure 4. GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliations, continued

Year ended December 31,

dollars in millions    2015        
                      

Common Equity Tier 1 under the Regulatory Capital Rules (estimates)

    

Common Equity Tier 1 under current Regulatory Capital Rules

   $ 9,847     

Adjustments from current Regulatory Capital Rules to the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules:

    

Deferred tax assets and other intangible assets (f)

     (40  
                      
 

Common Equity Tier 1 anticipated under the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules (g)

   $ 9,807     
    

 

 

   

Net risk-weighted assets under current Regulatory Capital Rules

   $         89,980     

Adjustments from current Regulatory Capital Rules to the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules:

    

Mortgage servicing assets (h)

     482     

All other assets (i)

     3     
                      
 

Total risk-weighted assets anticipated under the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules (g)

   $ 90,465     
    

 

 

   

Common Equity Tier 1 ratio under the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules (g)

     10.84        %   
                      

 

(f) Includes the deferred tax assets subject to future taxable income for realization, primarily tax credit carryforwards, as well as intangible assets (other than goodwill and mortgage servicing assets) subject to the transition provisions of the final rule.

 

(g) The anticipated amount of regulatory capital and risk-weighted assets is based upon the federal banking agencies’ Regulatory Capital Rules (as fully phased-in on January 1, 2019); we are subject to the Regulatory Capital Rules under the “standardized approach.”

 

(h) Item is included in the 10%/15% exceptions bucket calculation and is risk-weighted at 250%.

 

(i) Includes the phase-in of deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences at 250% risk-weight. Additionally, under the fully implemented rule, certain deferred tax assets and intangible assets subject to the transition provision are no longer required to be risk-weighted because they are deducted directly from capital.

Results of Operations

Net interest income

One of our principal sources of revenue is net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income received on earning assets (such as loans and securities) and loan-related fee income, and interest expense paid on deposits and borrowings. There are several factors that affect net interest income, including:

 

¿ the volume, pricing, mix, and maturity of earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities;

 

¿ the volume and value of net free funds, such as noninterest-bearing deposits and equity capital;

 

¿ the use of derivative instruments to manage interest rate risk;

 

¿ interest rate fluctuations and competitive conditions within the marketplace; and

 

¿ asset quality.

To make it easier to compare results among several periods and the yields on various types of earning assets (some taxable, some not), we present net interest income in this discussion on a “taxable-equivalent basis” (i.e.,

 

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as if it were all taxable and at the same rate). For example, $100 of tax-exempt income would be presented as $154, an amount that — if taxed at the statutory federal income tax rate of 35% — would yield $100.

Figure 5 shows the various components of our balance sheet that affect interest income and expense, and their respective yields or rates over the past five years. This figure also presents a reconciliation of taxable-equivalent net interest income to net interest income reported in accordance with GAAP for each of those years. The net interest margin, which is an indicator of the profitability of the earning assets portfolio less cost of funding, is calculated by dividing taxable-equivalent net interest income by average earning assets.

Taxable-equivalent net interest income for 2015 was $2.376 billion, and the net interest margin was 2.88%. These results compare to taxable-equivalent net interest income of $2.317 billion and a net interest margin of 2.97% for the prior year. The $59 million increase in net interest income reflects higher earning asset balances, partially offset by lower earning asset yields, which also drove the decline in the net interest margin.

Taxable-equivalent net interest income for 2014 decreased $31 million compared to 2013, and the net interest margin declined 15 basis points. The decreases in net interest income and the net interest margin were attributable to lower earning asset yields. Loan growth, the maturity of higher-rate certificates of deposit, and a more favorable mix of lower-cost deposits and wholesale borrowings partially offset the impact of lower earning asset yields.

Average earning assets totaled $82.5 billion for 2015, compared to $78.1 billion in 2014. Contributing to the 2015 increase in average earning assets was average loan growth of $2.9 billion driven by commercial, financial and agricultural loans, which increased $3.3 billion and was broad-based across our commercial lines of business. In addition, our average securities available for sale portfolio increased $1.5 billion compared to 2014 due to higher levels of liquidity, driven by deposit growth and long-term debt issuances, which benefited KeyBank’s LCR and credit ratings profile.

Average deposits, excluding deposits in foreign office, totaled $70.1 billion for 2015, an increase of $2.9 billion compared to 2014. NOW and money market deposit accounts increased $2 billion, and demand deposits increased $1.9 billion, reflecting growth in the commercial mortgage servicing business and inflows from commercial and consumer clients. These increases were partially offset by run-off in certificates of deposit and other time deposits.

 

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Figure 5. Consolidated Average Balance Sheets, Net Interest Income and Yields/Rates from Continuing Operations

 

     2015             2014       

Year ended December 31,

dollars in millions

       Average
    Balance
           Interest      (a)    Yield/
Rate
     (a)          Average
    Balance
           Interest      (a)    Yield/
Rate
     (a)

ASSETS

                               

Loans: (b), (c)

                               

Commercial, financial and agricultural

   $ 29,658        (d )    $ 953            3.21         %       $     26,375        (d )    $ 866            3.28       %

Real estate — commercial mortgage

     8,020          295            3.68            7,999          303            3.79      

Real estate — construction

     1,143          43            3.73            1,061          43            4.07      

Commercial lease financing

     3,976          143            3.60            4,239          156            3.67      
 

Total commercial loans

     42,797          1,434            3.35            39,674          1,368            3.45      

Real estate — residential mortgage

     2,244          95            4.21            2,201          96            4.37      

Home equity:

                               

Key Community Bank

     10,266          399            3.89            10,340          405            3.91      

Other

     237          19            7.85            299          23            7.80      
 

Total home equity loans

     10,503          418            3.98            10,639          428            4.02      

Consumer other — Key Community Bank

     1,580          103            6.54            1,501          104            6.92      

Credit cards

     752          81            10.76            712          78            10.95      

Consumer other:

                               

Marine

     675          43            6.36            894          56            6.22      

Other

     43          3            7.56            58          4            7.70      
 

Total consumer other

     718          46            6.43            952          60            6.31      
 

Total consumer loans

     15,797          743            4.70            16,005          766            4.79      
 

Total loans

     58,594          2,177            3.71            55,679          2,134            3.83      

Loans held for sale

     959          37            3.85            570          21            3.76      

Securities available for sale (b), (e)

     13,720          293            2.14            12,210          277            2.27      

Held-to-maturity securities (b)

     4,936          96            1.95            4,949          93            1.88      

Trading account assets

     761          21            2.80            932          25            2.70      

Short-term investments

     2,843          8            .27            2,886          6            .21      

Other investments (e)

     706          18            2.63            865          22            2.53      
 

Total earning assets

     82,519          2,650            3.21            78,091          2,578            3.30      

Allowance for loan and lease losses

     (791                   (818             

Accrued income and other assets

     10,300                      9,806                

Discontinued assets

     2,132                      3,828                
 

Total assets

   $ 94,160                    $ 90,907                
  

 

 

                 

 

 

              

LIABILITIES

                               

NOW and money market deposit accounts

   $ 36,258          56            .15          $ 34,283          48            .14      

Savings deposits

     2,372          —              .02            2,446          1            .02      

Certificates of deposit ($100,000 or more) (f)

     2,041          26            1.28            2,616          35            1.35      

Other time deposits

     3,115          22            .71            3,495          32            .91      

Deposits in foreign office

     489          1            .23            615          1            .23      
 

Total interest-bearing deposits

     44,275          105            .24            43,455          117            .27      

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements

     632          —              .04            1,182          2            .16      

Bank notes and other short-term borrowings

     572          9            1.52            597          9            1.49      

Long-term debt (f), (g)

     7,334          160            2.24            5,161          133            2.68      
 

Total interest-bearing liabilities

     52,813          274            .52            50,395          261            .52      

Noninterest-bearing deposits

     26,355                      24,410                

Accrued expense and other liabilities

     2,222                      1,791                

Discontinued liabilities (g)

     2,132                      3,828                
 

Total liabilities

     83,522                      80,424                

EQUITY

                               

Key shareholders’ equity

     10,626                      10,467                

Noncontrolling interests

     12                      16                
 

Total equity

     10,638                      10,483                
 

Total liabilities and equity

   $     94,160                    $ 90,907                
  

 

 

                 

 

 

              

Interest rate spread (TE)

               2.69         %                   2.78       %
 

Net interest income (TE) and net interest margin (TE)

         2,376            2.88         %             2,317            2.97       %
            

 

 

                 

 

 

    

TE adjustment (b)

         28                      24            
 

Net interest income, GAAP basis

       $     2,348                    $     2,293            
      

 

 

                 

 

 

          
                                                                                             

 

(a) Results are from continuing operations. Interest excludes the interest associated with the liabilities referred to in (g) below, calculated using a matched funds transfer pricing methodology.

 

(b) Interest income on tax-exempt securities and loans has been adjusted to a taxable-equivalent basis using the statutory federal income tax rate of 35%.

 

(c) For purposes of these computations, nonaccrual loans are included in average loan balances.

 

(d) Commercial, financial and agricultural average balances include $88 million, $93 million, $95 million, and $36 million of assets from commercial credit cards for the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014, December 31, 2013, and December 31, 2012, respectively.

 

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Figure 5. Consolidated Average Balance Sheets, Net Interest Income and Yields/Rates from Continuing Operations (Continued)

 

2013      2012             2011             Compound Annual Rate of
Change (2011-2015)
       
Average
Balance
           Interest      (a)    Yield/
Rate
     (a)      Average
Balance
           Interest      (a)    Yield/
Rate
     (a)      Average
Balance
          Interest      (a)    Yield/
Rate
     (a)      Average
Balance
                Interest         
                                                       
                                                       
$     23,723        (d )    $ 855            3.60         %       $     21,141        (d )    $ 810            3.83         %       $     17,507         $ 705            4.03         %         11.1        %         6.2        %   
  7,591          312            4.11            7,656          339            4.43            8,437           380            4.50            (1.0        (4.9  
  1,058          45            4.25            1,171          56            4.74            1,677           73            4.36            (7.4        (10.0  
  4,683          172            3.67            5,142          187            3.64            5,846           293            5.01            (7.4        (13.4  
     
  37,055          1,384            3.73            35,110          1,392            3.96            33,467           1,451            4.34            5.0           (.2  
  2,185          98            4.49            2,049          100            4.86            1,850           97            5.25            3.9           (.4  
                                                       
  10,086          397            3.93            9,520          384            4.03            9,390           387            4.12            1.8           .6     
  377          29            7.70            473          37            7.81            598           46            7.66            (16.9        (16.2  
     
  10,463          426            4.07            9,993          421            4.21            9,988           433            4.34            1.0           (.7  
  1,404          103            7.33            1,269          121            9.53            1,167           113            9.62            6.2           (1.8  
  701          83            11.86            288          40            13.99            —             —              —              N/M           N/M     
                                                       
  1,172          74            6.26            1,551          97            6.26            1,992           125            6.28            (19.5        (19.2  
  74          6            8.32            102          8            8.14            142           11            7.87            (21.3        (22.9  
     
  1,246          80            6.38            1,653          105            6.38            2,134           136            6.38            (19.6        (19.5  
     
  15,999          790            4.94            15,252          787            5.16            15,139           779            5.14            .9           (.9  
     
  53,054          2,174            4.10            50,362          2,179            4.33            48,606           2,230            4.59            3.8           (.5  
  532          20            3.72            579          20            3.45            387           14            3.58            19.9           21.5     
  12,689          311            2.49            13,422          399            3.08            18,766           584            3.20            (6.1        (12.9  
  4,387          82            1.87            3,511          69            1.97            514           12            2.35            57.2           51.6     
  756          21            2.78            718          18            2.48            878           26            2.97            (2.8        (4.2  
  2,948          6            .20            2,116          6            .27            2,543           6            .25            2.3           5.9     
  1,028          29            2.84            1,141          38            3.27            1,264           42            3.14            (11.0        (15.6  
     
  75,394          2,643            3.51            71,849          2,729            3.82            72,958           2,914            4.02            2.5           (1.9  
  (879                   (919                   (1,250                    (8.7       
  9,662                      9,912                      10,341                       (.1       
  5,036                      5,573                      6,247                       (19.3       
     
$ 89,213                    $ 86,415                    $ 88,296                       1.3        %        

 

 

                 

 

 

                 

 

 

                         
                                                       
$ 32,846          53            .16          $ 29,673          56            .19          $ 27,001           71            .26            6.1        %         (4.6  
  2,505          1            .04            2,218          1            .05            1,958           1            .06            3.9           (100.0  
  2,829          50            1.76            3,574          94            2.64            4,931           149            3.02            (16.2        (29.5  
  4,084          53            1.30            5,386          104            1.92            7,185           166            2.31            (15.4        (33.2  
  567          1            .23            767          2            .23            807           3            .30            (9.5        (19.7  
     
  42,831          158            .37            41,618          257            .62            41,882           390            .93            1.1           (23.1  
  1,802          2            .13            1,814          4            .19            1,981           5            .27            (20.4        (100.0  
  394          8            1.89            413          7            1.69            619           11            1.84            (1.6        (3.9  
  4,184          127            3.28            4,673          173            4.10            7,293           216            3.18            .1           (5.8  
     
  49,211          295            .60            48,518          441            .92            51,775           622            1.21            .4           (15.1  
  23,046                      20,217                      17,381                       8.7          
  1,656                      1,958                      2,658                       (3.5       
  4,995                      5,555                      6,232                       (19.3       
     
  78,908                      76,248                      78,046                       1.4          
                                                       
  10,276                      10,144                      10,133                       1.0          
  29                      23                      117                       (36.6       
     
  10,305                      10,167                      10,250                       .7          
     
$ 89,213                    $ 86,415                    $ 88,296                       1.3        %        

 

 

                 

 

 

                 

 

 

                         
            2.91         %                   2.90         %                    2.81         %             
     
      2,348            3.12         %             2,288            3.21         %              2,292            3.16         %              .7     
         

 

 

                 

 

 

                  

 

 

              
      23                      24                       25                       2.3     
     
    $ 2,325                    $     2,264                     $     2,267                       .7        %   
   

 

 

                 

 

 

                  

 

 

                    
                                                                                                                                                                           

 

(e) Yield is calculated on the basis of amortized cost.

 

(f) Rate calculation excludes basis adjustments related to fair value hedges.

 

(g) A portion of long-term debt and the related interest expense is allocated to discontinued liabilities as a result of applying our matched funds transfer pricing methodology to discontinued operations.

 

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Figure 6 shows how the changes in yields or rates and average balances from the prior year affected net interest income. The section entitled “Financial Condition” contains additional discussion about changes in earning assets and funding sources.

Figure 6. Components of Net Interest Income Changes from Continuing Operations

 

     2015 vs. 2014          2014 vs. 2013      
in millions    Average
Volume
    Yield/
Rate
    Net
Change
    (a)    Average
Volume
    Yield/
Rate
    Net
Change
    (a)

INTEREST INCOME

                 

Loans

   $       110      $       (67   $       43         $ 105      $ (145   $ (40  

Loans held for sale

     15        1        16           1        —          1     

Securities available for sale

     33        (17     16           (11     (23     (34  

Held-to-maturity securities

     —          3        3           11        —          11     

Trading account assets

     (5     1        (4        5        (1     4     

Short-term investments

     —          2        2           —          —          —       

Other investments

     (4     —          (4        (4     (3     (7  
     

Total interest income (TE)

     149        (77     72           107        (172     (65  
                 

INTEREST EXPENSE

                 

NOW and money market deposit accounts

     3        5        8           2        (7     (5  

Savings deposits

     —          (1     (1        —          —          —       

Certificates of deposit ($100,000 or more)

     (7     (2     (9        (4     (11     (15  

Other time deposits

     (3     (7     (10        (7     (14     (21  

Deposits in foreign office

     —          —          —             —          —          —       
     

Total interest-bearing deposits

     (7     (5     (12        (9     (32     (41  

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements

     (1     (1     (2        (1     1        —       

Bank notes and other short-term borrowings

     —          —          —             3        (2     1     

Long-term debt

     50        (23     27           27        (21     6     
     

Total interest expense

     42        (29     13           20        (54     (34  
     

Net interest income (TE)

   $ 107      $ (48   $ 59         $ 87      $ (118   $ (31  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   
     

 

(a) The change in interest not due solely to volume or rate has been allocated in proportion to the absolute dollar amounts of the change in each.

Noninterest income

As shown in Figure 7, noninterest income for 2015 was $1.88 billion, up $83 million, or 4.6%, from 2014. Investment banking and debt placement fees benefited from our business model and had a record year, increasing $48 million from 2014. Trust and investment services income increased $30 million, primarily due to the full year 2015 impact of the September 2014 acquisition of Pacific Crest Securities. Noninterest income for 2015 also included increases of $20 million in corporate services income due to higher non-yield loan fees and dealer trading and derivatives income and $17 million in cards and payments income due to higher merchant services, purchase card, and ATM debit card fees driven by increased volume. Other income also increased $10 million. These increases were partially offset by declines of $27 million in net gains from principal investing and $23 million in operating lease income and other leasing gains.

In 2014, noninterest income increased $31 million, or 1.8%, compared to 2013. Investment banking and debt placement fees increased $64 million from 2013. Net gains from principal investing were $26 million higher than prior year, and trust and investment services income increased $10 million, primarily due to the September 2014 acquisition of Pacific Crest Securities. These increases were partially offset by declines of $21 million in operating lease income and other leasing gains, $20 million in service charges on deposit accounts, $12 million in mortgage servicing fees, and $9 million in consumer mortgage income. Other income also decreased $15 million.

 

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Figure 7. Noninterest Income

 

Year ended December 31,                                 Change 2015 vs. 2014                 
dollars in millions    2015      2014      2013      Amount     Percent        
               

Trust and investment services income

   $ 433       $ 403       $ 393       $ 30        7.4        %   

Investment banking and debt placement fees

     445         397         333         48        12.1     

Service charges on deposit accounts

     256         261         281         (5     (1.9  

Operating lease income and other leasing gains

     73         96         117         (23     (24.0  

Corporate services income

     198         178         172         20        11.2     

Cards and payments income

     183         166         162         17        10.2     

Corporate-owned life insurance income

     127         118         120         9        7.6     

Consumer mortgage income

     12         10         19         2        20.0     

Mortgage servicing fees

     48         46         58         2        4.3     

Net gains (losses) from principal investing

     51         78         52         (27     (34.6  

Other income (a)

     54         44         59         10        22.7     

Total noninterest income

   $     1,880       $     1,797       $ 1,766       $ 83        4.6        %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

     
    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

           

 

(a) Included in this line item is our “Dealer trading and derivatives income (loss).” Additional detail is provided in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Dealer Trading and Derivatives Income (Loss)

 

Year ended December 31,                              Change 2015 vs. 2014            
dollars in millions    2015     2014      2013      Amount      Percent        

Dealer trading and derivatives income (loss), proprietary (a), (b)

   $     (9   $     (18)       $     (14)         $              9         N/M     

Dealer trading and derivatives income (loss), nonproprietary (b)

     20                27          13         185.7        %   

Total dealer trading and derivatives income (loss)

   $     11      $     (11)       $      13          $            22         N/M     
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

      
    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

            

 

(a) For the year ended December 31, 2015, income of $5 million related to foreign exchange, interest rates, and commodity derivative trading was offset by losses related to fixed income, equity securities trading, and credit portfolio management activities. For the year ended December 31, 2014, income of $4 million related to foreign exchange, interest rate, and commodity derivative trading was offset by losses related to equity securities trading, fixed income, and credit portfolio management activities. For the year ended December 31, 2013, income of $3 million related to foreign exchange and interest rate derivative trading was offset by losses related to fixed income, equity securities trading, commodity derivative trading, and credit portfolio management activities.

 

(b) The allocation between proprietary and nonproprietary is made based upon whether the trade is conducted for the benefit of Key or Key’s clients rather than based upon rulemaking under the Volcker Rule. Prohibitions and restrictions on proprietary trading activities imposed by the Volcker Rule became effective April 1, 2014. For more information, see the discussion under the heading “Other Regulatory Developments under the Dodd-Frank Act — ‘Volcker Rule’” in the section entitled “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report.

The following discussion explains the composition of certain elements of our noninterest income and the factors that caused those elements to change.

Trust and investment services income

Trust and investment services income is one of our largest sources of noninterest income and consists of brokerage commissions, trust and asset management commissions, and insurance income. The assets under management that primarily generate these revenues are shown in Figure 9. For 2015, trust and investment services income increased $30 million, or 7.4%, from the prior year primarily due to the full year 2015 impact of the September 2014 acquisition of Pacific Crest Securities. For 2014, trust and investment services income increased $10 million, or 2.5%, from the prior year.

A significant portion of our trust and investment services income depends on the value and mix of assets under management. At December 31, 2015, our bank, trust, and registered investment advisory subsidiaries had assets under management of $34.0 billion, compared to $39.2 billion at December 31, 2014, and $36.9 billion at December 31, 2013. As shown in Figure 9, the decrease from 2014 to 2015 was primarily attributable to client attrition in the securities lending portfolio and market declines across all the portfolios. Increases from 2013 to 2014 across all the portfolios were attributable to market appreciation.

 

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Figure 9. Assets Under Management

 

Year ended December 31,                             Change 2015 vs. 2014            
dollars in millions    2015      2014      2013      Amount     Percent        

Assets under management by investment type:

               

Equity

   $ 20,199       $ 21,393       $ 20,971       $ (1,194     (5.6     %   

Securities lending

     1,215         4,835         3,422         (3,620     (74.9  

Fixed income

     9,705         10,023         9,767         (318     (3.2  

Money market

     2,864         2,906         2,745         (42     (1.4  
     

Total

   $     33,983       $ 39,157       $ 36,905       $ (5,174     (13.2     %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   
     

Investment banking and debt placement fees

Investment banking and debt placement fees consist of syndication fees, debt and equity financing fees, financial advisor fees, gains on sales of commercial mortgages, and agency origination fees. For 2015, investment banking and debt placement fees increased $48 million, or 12.1%, from the prior year. For 2014, investment banking and debt placement fees increased $64 million, or 19.2%, from the prior year. These increases were primarily driven by strength in syndication and financial advisory fees as well as the impact of the September 2014 acquisition of Pacific Crest Securities.

Service charges on deposit accounts

Service charges on deposit accounts declined $5 million, or 1.9%, in 2015 compared to the prior year and $20 million, or 7.1%, in 2014 compared to 2013 primarily due to lower overdraft charges resulting from changes in posting order.

Operating lease income and other leasing gains

Operating lease income and other leasing gains decreased $23 million, or 24%, during 2015 compared to the prior year, and $21 million, or 17.9%, in 2014 compared to 2013 due to lower gains on the early terminations of leveraged leases. Figure 10 shows the corresponding operating lease expense related to the rental of leased equipment.

Corporate services income

Corporate services income increased $20 million, or 11.2%, in 2015 compared to 2014 driven by higher non-yield loan fees and dealer trading and d